muramic acid


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Related to muramic acid: gluconic acid, N-Acetylneuraminic acid

mu·ram·ic acid

 (myo͝o-răm′ĭk)
n.
An amino sugar, C9H17NO7, found in the peptidoglycan layer of the cell walls of many bacteria.

[Latin mūrus, wall + am(ide) + -ic.]
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
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The Russian households had greater microbial diversity and quantity with Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Firmicutes and Actinobacteria) accounting for 67% of the identified bacterial sequences: "Russian Karelian dust showed up to 20-fold higher content of muramic acid (marker of Gram-positive bacteria) and a sevenfold greater number of animal-associated species...." Urban Finnish household dust primarily contained Gram-negative bacteria, such as Proteobacteria.
[15.] Taylor KACC A Simple Colorimetric Assay for Muramic Acid and Lactic Acid.
TEHRAN (FNA)- 'Determination of muramic acid as a biomarker for silver nanoparticles activity' standard which was proposed three years ago by Standardization Committee of Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council to the Nanotechnology International Standardization Committee (ISO/TC229) was approved in the final stage of voting (DTS stage) and will be published in the near future.
Muramic acid, glucosamine, mannosamine, and galactosamine maybe used as an indicator of microbial origin of soil organic matter [108, 109].
The parameters checked as indicated above were: cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, muramic acid, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA reductase, digoxin and bile acids.
* Presentation of the new edition of standard for "Measurement of muramic acid in order to determine the antibacterial activity of nanosilver" for the second stage of standard compilation.
To measure peptidoglycan, we quantified the component N-acetyl muramic acid (2-acetamido-3-O- [(R)-1-carboxyethyl] -2-deoxy-D-glucose; hereafter muramic acid) by a previously described gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, using [.sup.13]C-labeled cyanobacteria as an internal standard (Sebastian et al.
Hence, the amounts of hexosamines and muramic acid and their ratios (glucosamine to galactosamine and glucosamine to muramic acid) can serve as useful indicators for bacterial and fungal contribution to SOM (Zhang et al.
Glucosamine and muramic acid concentrations can be used to establish cumulative fungal and bacterial (respectively) cell wall product concentrations in soil.
6,008,333, "Preparation of Glucosaminyl Muramic Acid Derivatives," describes methods for chemically synthesizing muramyl dipeptide-based immunomodulators.
These methods include microscopic direct counts or observations, chemical (muramic acid) content for bacteria (Miller and Casida), chitin (Frankland et al.) or ergosterol (Newell) for fungi.