The Russian households had greater microbial diversity and quantity with Gram-positive bacteria (e.g., Firmicutes and Actinobacteria) accounting for 67% of the identified bacterial sequences: "Russian Karelian dust showed up to 20-fold higher content of muramic acid
(marker of Gram-positive bacteria) and a sevenfold greater number of animal-associated species...." Urban Finnish household dust primarily contained Gram-negative bacteria, such as Proteobacteria.
[15.] Taylor KACC A Simple Colorimetric Assay for Muramic Acid
and Lactic Acid.
TEHRAN (FNA)- 'Determination of muramic acid
as a biomarker for silver nanoparticles activity' standard which was proposed three years ago by Standardization Committee of Iran Nanotechnology Initiative Council to the Nanotechnology International Standardization Committee (ISO/TC229) was approved in the final stage of voting (DTS stage) and will be published in the near future.
, glucosamine, mannosamine, and galactosamine maybe used as an indicator of microbial origin of soil organic matter [108, 109].
The parameters checked as indicated above were: cytochrome F420, free RNA, free DNA, muramic acid
, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, hydrogen peroxide, serotonin, pyruvate, ammonia, glutamate, cytochrome C, hexokinase, ATP synthase, HMG CoA reductase, digoxin and bile acids.
* Presentation of the new edition of standard for "Measurement of muramic acid
in order to determine the antibacterial activity of nanosilver" for the second stage of standard compilation.
To measure peptidoglycan, we quantified the component N-acetyl muramic acid
(2-acetamido-3-O- [(R)-1-carboxyethyl] -2-deoxy-D-glucose; hereafter muramic acid
) by a previously described gas chromatography/ mass spectrometry (GC/MS) method, using [.sup.13]C-labeled cyanobacteria as an internal standard (Sebastian et al.
Hence, the amounts of hexosamines and muramic acid
and their ratios (glucosamine to galactosamine and glucosamine to muramic acid
) can serve as useful indicators for bacterial and fungal contribution to SOM (Zhang et al.
Glucosamine and muramic acid
concentrations can be used to establish cumulative fungal and bacterial (respectively) cell wall product concentrations in soil.
6,008,333, "Preparation of Glucosaminyl Muramic Acid
Derivatives," describes methods for chemically synthesizing muramyl dipeptide-based immunomodulators.
These methods include microscopic direct counts or observations, chemical (muramic acid
) content for bacteria (Miller and Casida), chitin (Frankland et al.) or ergosterol (Newell) for fungi.