Hilpert et al  found that archaea were insensitive to many antibiotics that inhibit eubacteria and eukaryotes, such as those inhibiting the synthesis or cross-linkage of the peptide subunit of murein
or those suppressing RNA synthesis.
A novel hypothesis to explain regulation of the murein
sacculus shape, p.
Foster, "Bacterial peptidoglycan (murein
) hydrolases," FEMS Microbiology Reviews, vol.
The first, neomuran phase was an adaptation to thermophily and involved a really major transformation of 19 key characters, including replacement of the cell wall peptidoglycan murein
by W-linked glycoprotein and a great upheaval in the cell's protein-secretion and DNA-handling machinery.
The cell wall of fungi contains chitin and ergosterol, while the cell wall of bacteria contains murein
The cidA murein
hydrolase regulator contributes to DNA release and biofilm development in Staphylococcus aureus.
Scherer, "C-terminal domains of Listeria monocytogenes bacteriophage murein
hydrolases determine specific recognition and high-affinity binding to bacterial cell wall carbohydrates," Molecular Microbiology, vol.
Endres et al., "The cidA murein
hydrolase regulator contributes to DNA release and biofilm development in Staphylococcus aureus," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
Peptidoglycan (or murein
) forms a mesh-like sacculus surrounding the cytoplasmic membrane of almost all eubacteria.