This area is widely used for harvesting flaps like musculocutaneous
, vascularized supraclavicular lymph node transfer and dorsal scapular island flaps in plastic and reconstructive surgery (Angrigiani et al., 2003; Haas et al., 2004; Kim et al., 2016).
Breast reconstruction with the denervated latissimus dorsi musculocutaneous
The distal latency of the musculocutaneous
nerve was significantly longer on the right and amplitude was found to be small bilaterally.
Moreover, there is no sparing of musculocutaneous
nerves and axillary nerve and incidence of tourniquet pain is less.
or advancement flaps provides good quality and elastic skin with reliable blood supply derived from anterior scrotal branches of the deep external pudendal artery.
However, healing in good quality is mostly difficult due to the lack of adequate soft tissues to fill the gap in deep ulcers. For patients whose PU is unable to recover properly with conservative treatment or those who have Stage III-IV PU wishing a rapid recovery, plastic surgery consultation is recommended. Various techniques can be used in the surgical treatment of PU,[10 -14] mainly including musculocutaneous
, fasciocutaneous, and perforator-based flaps.
 The pectoralis major musculocutaneous
flap is commonly recruited to provide tissue from outside the field in recent times.
The latissimus dorsi muscle flap and musculocutaneous
flap remain the first options as workhorse in chest wall reconstruction.
infrahyoid flap: surgical key points.
Implantation surgery was performed in sixteen ears in the following steps: 1) incision in the region behind the ear and elevation of the musculocutaneous
flap; exposure of the cortical mastoid bone located behind the external ear canal, 2) identification of anatomical landmarks: superiorly, linea temporalis, inferiorly, mastoid process; anterior, external auditory canal; posterior, lateral sinus, 3) cortical mastoidectomy preserving the walls of the external auditory canal intact; first drilling maneuver sought to expose the antrum and identify the incus and the lateral semicircular canal.
(19), bronchopleural fistulas were obliterated using a musculocutaneous
flap of serratus anterior after de-epithelization.