Robinson-Smith (Jamaica Cultural Development Commission; the Jamaica National Commission for UNESCO) offers an accessible history and ethnography of Revivalism, an Afro-Jamaican folk religion with roots in the Great Revival in Jamaica in 1860-61, with influences from Myalism
, the black Baptist movement, and the rituals of the Akan peoples of Ghana.
Another limitation of this work, is the study of 'Myalism
The parish remains thus "plagued" as, one colleague volunteers, "Kingstonians don't have to drive east to go to the [tourist] North Coast." Much less frequently are we exposed to the parish's historical contributions and immense cultural richness: the legacy of the Maroons and related attachments to such Africanisms as Kumina, Obeah, or Myalism
, together with ongoing and vibrant tales of the invisible, who must often be palliated with offerings of white rum and chicken blood.
First, Caribbean evangelicals were some of the first black Christians to demand separation from white Protestants; second, Afro-Caribbean Christianity was heavily influenced by African-derived myalism
, which emphasized the practical benefits of religion rather than the promises of other-worldly salvation offered by more orthodox white churches.
These common themes are found in Haiti's Vodun, Cuba's Lucumi (Lukumi) and Santeria, Jamaica's Kumina (Cumina), Myalism
, Pocomania (2) and Revival Zionism, Brazil's Candomble, Nago and Umbanda, Trinidad's Shango, Orisha Worship and Shouters, St.
meanings of obeah, including the idea that Myalism
Thus, obeah, myalism
, and even the elder members of the church, are seen to have worked to exert sanctions within the subaltern communities.
In Jamaica Myalism
is a popular form of white magic.
In examining how lodges, mutual-aid societies, churches, and, eventually, unions formed the bases for worker resistance to company demands, the author finds contradictions: popular organizations, often linked to neo-African and Afro-Christian religions such as obeah, myalism
, and revivalism, allowed the population quickly to mobilize, to overcome inter-island rivalries, and to hold out, if only briefly, against considerable outside pressure.
which will take Ella from the dis/ease of Anglo-interpellation, recitation/reproduction, to the health of resistance and recuperation.
African beliefs, in both Myalism
and Obeah, were used to address the tribulations of slavery and, give an apparent "disposition to syncretism," (p.
Margarite Fernandez-Olmos and Lizabeth Paravisini-Gebert write that "the systematic repression of African cultural expressions on the part of the British had forced these practices [like Obeah] underground, and they had ultimately been lost, except in pockets of religious activity like Myalism
and the Trinidadian Orisha tradition" (Fernandez-Olmos and Parvisini-Gebert 136).