Timely surgical intervention for mycobacterial
empyema is both safe and effective for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease.
These opportunistic pathogens account for an increasing proportion of mycobacterial
In recent years, the BACTEC MGIT 960 system, a fully automated and nonradiometric culture system, has been recommended for faster mycobacterial
isolation from clinical specimens .
Other reasons to biopsy include suspected infection --whether bacterial, fungal, or mycobacterial
; atypical appearance; suspected vasculitis; and recent travel history.
Susceptibilities to mycobacterial
osteoarticular infections are thought to result from disorders in Type 1 T-helper-cell-mediated immune inflammation, resulting in deficient production and/or action of interleukin 12 (IL12) and interferon gamma (IFN-[gamma]) .
, fungal and other opportunistic infections force the clinician to rule out a large list of conditions associated with secondary immunodeficiency as infectious agents (HIV, Herpesvirus, HTLV), drugs (steroids, immunosuppressants, biologics, chemotherapy), metabolic diseases (diabetes, renal failure, cirrhosis), malignancies (leukemia, lymphomas and solid tumors) and environmental conditions (radiation, heavy metals) (2) but even adult patients can have late onset primary genetic immunodeficiency disorders as chronic granulomatous disease, X-linked agammaglobulinemia, interleukin-12 receptor deficiency or interferongamma (IFN-?) and interleukin-23/interleukin-17 pathway defects (3) explaining their pattern of infection or the presence of opportunistic microorganism.
These methodologies allow for the rapid identification of mycobacterial
organisms in less than one day (12).
Parotid gland infections are usually caused by pathogens such as Staphylococcus aureus and anaerobic bacteria  and only in rare cases are secondary to a mycobacterial
Among A Group of patients (30 in nos.), 27 had atypical mycobacterial
infections and 3 patients had nonmycobacterial infections.
(5,6) An inherent impaired immunity against both mycobacterial
organisms has been postulated as the aetiology for dual infection; however, it appears that anergy in leprosy is pathogen specific.
This is the only laboratory performing mycobacterial
culture on specimens received from public healthcare centres in KZN.
infections, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis or nontuberculous (atypical) mycobacterial
(NTM) species, often present as indolent infections refractory to treatment with antibiotics.