The four repressed genes are expressed preferentially in neurons and regulate the synaptic function and the neuronal plasticity, while the overexpressed gene is characteristic for neuroglia cells, its expression is activated as a response to neuronal damage and facilitates myelinization
, neurogenesis and neuronal migration occur during this period (15) so that nutritional insults during this period represent a high risk factor for the development of the cognitive skills that are essential for written language.
The amount of apoptosis necessary for physiological brain development is determined by the degree of myelinization
and the water content of the brain (Smith et al., 1995).
, dopamine and nor-epinephrine metabolism, neuronal energy metabolism, and there by child development are negatively affected by iron deficiency (16).
Neurodevelopmental disorders may occur due to problems with neurodevelopmental steps such as synaptic and neuronal growth myelinization
, neuronal differentiation, and synaptic pruning.
Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed delayed myelinization
at the corpus callosum, genu of the internal capsule, and posterior limb.
The functions of neurosteroids include regulation of axons' and dendrites' growth, neuroprotection, and myelinization
Thyroid hormones are essential for development and function of the brain because they are involved in neuron formation and migration, formation of axons and dendrites, myelinization
, development of synapses, and regulation of specific neurotransmitters in the fetal and postnatal periods (4).
(d) Radial diffusivity (RD) represents water diffusivity in a direction transversal to the principal and related to the myelinization
During adolescence, brain neurogenesis and synaptogenesis activity are similar to adulthood and, concurrently, myelinization
The extent of myelinization
affects the size of ONH.
In addition, it is necessary for the improved function of the immune system, cellular breath, bone formation, normal cardiac function, conjunctive tissue development, myelinization
of spinal marrow, keratinization and pigmentation of tissues.