To test whether horse primary myoblast cells possess the capacity for differentiation into myotube
cells, horse muscle cells with 80% confluence were cultured in Medium 199 supplemented with 2% FBS for 12 days.
IL-15 promotes human myogenesis and mitigates the detrimental effects of TNF[alpha] on myotube
Developing a novel serum-free cell culture model of skeletal muscle differentiation by systematically studying the role of different growth factors in myotube
The participation of transduced GFP-positive cells in the myotube
formation ([alpha]-actinin, Cy3) over time could be visualized by fluorescent microscopy in GFP-infected samples (Figure 1(a)) and in PGC-1[alpha]infected samples (Figure 1(b)).
starvation was induced by Hanks balanced salt solution incubation plus glucose (4.5 g/L).
It is well known that a lot of target genes activated by HIF-1a are involved in cell proliferation, survival, and differentiation, including erythropoietin, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), basic fibroblast growth factor, and others.[sup] Ono et al .[sup] constructed HIF-1a knockdown C2C12 cells to analyze the role of HIF-1a in myoblast differentiation and found that HIF-1a knockdown effectively blocked myotube
formation and myosin heavy chain (MHC) expression.
Confluent cells in 25 c[m.sup.2] flasks were cultured for a further 14 days (to allow myotube
formation), according to the protocol mentioned in (30) with slight modifications (Figure 2).
Smad signaling is required for myostatin-mediated inhibition of Akt/mTORC1 signaling, myotube
atrophy, and TGF-[beta]--induced fiber atrophy (Goodman and Hornberger 2014; McFarlane et al.
Russell, "G-CSF treatment can attenuate dexamethasone-induced reduction in C2C12 myotube
protein synthesis," Cytokine, vol.
Although a study demonstrated that an omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid, docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), preserves skeletal myotube
integrity , the mechanisms by which unsaturated fatty acid protects myotube
against palmitate-induced atrophy remain elusive.
Keating, "Mammalian myotube
dedifferentiation induced by newt regeneration extract," Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol.
In a published study, scientists from Genea Biocells analyzed in detail cellular and molecular aspects of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) during myogenic development and in myotube
cultures by comparing muscle cells generated from five FSHD-affected and four normal control stem cell lines.