Compounds such as lauric acid, myristic acid
and palmitic acid increase the concentration of total cholesterol in plasma and the concentration of low-density lipoproteins associated with cholesterol (LDL-C), presumably by decreasing the activity of LDL receptor and/or increasing LDL-C production .
Tert-butylperoxy 2-ethylhexyl carbonate (TBEC) (95%) (Sigma-Aldrich), sodium hydroxide (99%) (Exodo), calcium chloride (96%) (Ecibra), ethanol (99.5%) (Synth), copper(II) nitrate hemi(pentahydrate) (98%) (Sigma-Aldrich), zinc nitrate hexahydrate (98%) (Sigma-Aldrich), stearic acid (95%) (Sigma-Aldrich), azelaic acid (85%) (Sigma-Aldrich), myristic acid
(99%) (Sigma-Aldrich), polyethylene glycol monolaurate (PEG monolaurate) ([M.sub.n] approximately 400 g/mol) (Sigma-Aldrich), silicone fluid (350 cps) (Dow Corning), and release compound (used in the injection procedure) (Dow coming) were of analytical grade and used as received.
For instance, Solazyme Inc., currently known as TerraVia Holdings Inc., a California-based organization, has successfully engineered a way to tailor the strains derived from algae that eventually can be expressed in terms of fatty acids, such as capric acid or myristic acid
. Algae are naturally as well commercially available in abundance, however, industries that operate sustainably and can be cost competitive with existing energy options is still a challenge and a major restraint for this industry.
The contents of myristic acid
and palmitic acid reduced (P < 0.05), while those of linoleic acid and linolenic acid increased (P < 0.05) in the carcass of all supplemented groups.
Fatty acid (FA) Number of atoms Carbon Saturated FA Tridecanoic acid C13:0 Myristic acid
Cl4:0 Pentadecanoic acid C15:0 Palmitic acid Cl6:0 Margaric acid Cl7:0 Stearic acid Cl8:0 Nonadecanoic acid Cl9:0 Arachidic acid C20:0 Fleneicosanoic acid C21:0 Tricosanoic acid C23:0 Monounsaturated FA Pentadecanoic acid C15:l Palmitoleic acid C16:ln7 Heptadecanoic acid C17:1 Oleic acid C18:ln9 Polyunsaturated FA Linoleic acid C18:2n6 Alpha-linoleic acid C18:3n3 Eicosadienoic acid C20:2 Arachidonic acid C20:4n6 Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) C20:5n3 Docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) C22:5n3 Docosahexaenoic acid (DFLA) C22:6n3 Abstract EPA+DHA [summation] n-3 [summation] n-6 n3/n6 [summation] SFA [summation] MUFA [summation] PUFA Present study D.
The following two equations, adapted from a study by ULBRICHT & SOUTHGATE (1991), were used to measure the quality of fat via atherogenic index (AI) and thrombogenic index (TI), where MUFA stands for monounsaturated fatty acid: AI = Lauric acid + (4 x Myristic acid
) + Palmitic acid/ (Omega 6 + Omega 3 + MUFA); TI = Myristic acid
+ Palmitic acid + Stearic acid/ ((0.5 x Oleic acid) + (0.5 x MUFA) + (0.5 x Omega 6) + (3 x Omega 3) + Omega 3: Omega 6).
The current study found that concentration of myristic acid
(0.05%) in chia seeds was close to the documented value of 0.03% .
(14,15,17,21) The essential oil (about 0.1%), known as "Orris butter", consists of about 85% myristic acid
, with irone (odiferous constituent with violet-like odor), [gamma]-dihydro-irones, ionone, methyl myristate (22,30), and other substances such as fat, resin, starch, mucilage, bitter principle, glycoside--iridin, and small amount of tannin.
Ke  selected fatty acids including capric acid (CA), lauric acid (LA), myristic acid
(MA), palmitic acid (PA), and stearic acid (SA) as the PCMs.
Saturated fatty acids (lauric acid, myristic acid
, and hydroxymyristic acid) and also unsaturated fatty acids: omega 9 (palmotoleic acid and octadecenoic acid), omega 6 (linoleic acid, arachidonic acid, and eicosadienoic acid), and omega 3 (linolenic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid) were different between the studied groups.
Fatty acids detected on oil samples were SFA: lauric acid (C12:0), myristic acid
(C14:0), palmitic acid (C16:0), and stearic acid (C18:0); MUFA: palmitoleic acid (C19:1n9), oleic acid (C18:1), and eicosanoic acid (C20:1n-9); and PUFA: linoleic acid (C18:2n-6) and linolenic acid (C18:3n3).
Stearic (C18:0) and myristic acid
(C14:0) followed palmitic acid with regard to the quantity in the saturated fatty acid group determined in the fat of grass carp, bighead carp, wels catfish, and Siberian sturgeon.