[2,3] Nalbuphine hydrochloride
, a synthetic opioid of phenanthrene series acts as a partial kappa receptor agonist and p receptor antagonist to provide analgesia.
Oral transmucosal fentanyl citrate has been studied in austere combat environment and recommended11 but we used nalbuphine hydrochloride
IV and IM.
Conclusions and Clinical Relevance--In Hispaniolan Amazon parrots, plasma concentrations of nalbuphine were prolonged after IM administration of nalbuphine decanoate, compared with previously reported results after administration of nalbuphine hydrochloride
. Plasma concentrations that could be associated with antinociception were maintained for 24 hours after IM administration of 37.5 mg of nalbuphine decanoate/kg.
In contrast, the figures for runaway and homeless adolescents are much higher: 90.6% used alcohol, 84.9% smoked cigarettes, 22.4% used nalbuphine hydrochloride
, 9.2% amphetamines, 7.8% benzodiazepine, and 8% mariuana and philopon.
For approximately 25 years, nalbuphine hydrochloride
(Nubain[R]), a synthetic opiate with agonist-antagonist properties, was prescribed for pain relief in several countries in North and Central America, Europe, and elsewhere.
A 10-mg dose of nalbuphine hydrochloride
was given intravenously when needed for parenteral pain relief.
From our study, we found that nalbuphine hydrochloride
when added to 0.5% hyperbaric bupivacaine for intrathecal administration, prolongs the duration of sensory blockade, provides excellent quality of analgesia and longer duration of post-operative analgesia with minimal side effects.
From the above study, it is concluded that Nalbuphine hydrochloride
added to hyperbaric bupivacaine in subarachnoid block prolongs the duration of sensory blockade provides long duration of postoperative analgesia provides good sedation with minimal side effects.
A comparison of intrathecal nalbuphine hydrochloride
with hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% and hyperbaric bupivacaine 0.5% alone in patients undergoing abdominal hysterectomy.