Antibiotic discs tested in the study were nalidixic acid
(30mcg), tetracycline (30mcg), co-trimoxazole (25mcg), ciprofloxacin (5mcg), chloramphenicol (30mcg), ampicillin (10mcg), gentamicin (10mcg), nitrofurantoin (300mcg), imipenem (10mcg), meropenem (10mcg), cefotaxime (30mcg) and piperacillintazobactum (100/10mcg) and the values obtained were interpreted as being resistant, intermediate and sensitive according to the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute guidelines.
Susceptibility to nalidixic acid
, ciprofloxacin, erythromycin, gentamycin, amoxicillin and amoxicillin/clavulanic acid was determined by the disk diffusion method following the recommendations for Campylobacter of the European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing - EUCAST (SIFRE et al., 2015).
Antibiotic susceptibility of all isolates to amikacin (30 [micro]g), ampicillin (10 [micro]g), ceftazidime (30 [micro]g), imipenem (10 [micro]g), tetracycline (30 [micro]g), levofloxacin (5 [micro]g), ciprofloxacin (5 [micro]g), nalidixic acid
(30 [micro]g), nitrofurantoin (300 [micro]g), co-trimoxazole (25 [micro]g), and gentamicin (10 [micro]g) (Mast Co., UK) was carried out on Muller- Hinton agar (Merck, Germany) using the disk diffusion method as recommended by the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI).
coli, the most frequently isolated bacterium showed high resistance rates (> 80%) to Ampicillin and Nalidixic acid
. Majority (96.3%) of E.
Table 1 shows that the elution order of nalidixic acid
and cinoxacin was reversed as the volume of acidic additive in the mobile phase was increased to 4 ml or higher.
Four isolates representing 4.12% were resistant to each of the following antibiotic: cefotaxime, nalidixic acid
, and nitrofurantoin.
Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) agar, Brain Heart Infusion (BHI) broth, Skirrow's supplement (SR69) Oxoid England, glycerol, cephalothin (30 [micro]g), and nalidixic acid
(30 [micro]g) antibiotic disc were obtained from Mast Group Ltd., Merseyside, UK.
It was carried out on Mueller-Hinton agar to chloramphenicol 30 [micro]g, nalidixic acid
30 [micro]g, ciprofloxacin 5 [micro]g, gentamicin 10 [micro]g, and tetracycline 30 [micro]g (Oxoid), which are frequently used in poultry production.
Objectives: To study the antibiotic resistance pattern of bacterial pathogens causing diarrhea isolated from children 93% in 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 respectively.10 In the latest research, 58%, 85%, 12.6%, 3.0% and 2.4% Shigella isolates were resistant to ampicillin, trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, nalidixic acid
, ofloxacin and ceftriaxone respectively.11
Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Shigella isolates against ampicillin 10 [micro]g (AMP), trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole 1.25/23.75 [micro]g (SXT), nalidixic acid
30 [micro]g (NAL), norfloxacin 10 [micro]g (NOR), cefotaxime 30 [micro]g (TAX) and cefixime 5 [micro]g (FIX) was performed using Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method and results were interpreted using breakpoints recommended by the Clinical Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines 2014 and 2015.
Susceptibility to antimicrobial agents was determined both by disk diffusion method of Kirby-Bauer and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) method on Muller-Hinton agar as described by the Clinical Laboratory Standard Institute (CLSI) 2014.12 Antibiotics used for antibiogram determination of the collected strains among FQ were: norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, enoxacin, moxifloxacin, and sparfloxacin and nalidixic acid
. Other antibiotics tested were: imipenem, meropenem, tazobactum, amikacin, cefoperazone sulbactam, gentamicin, cefepime, ceftazidime, co-amoxiclav, ticarcillin, aztreonam, cefoperazone, co-trimoxazole, cefotaxime, cefixime, ceftriaxone, pipemidic acid and ampicillin.