In order to prevent nasal bleeding, 0.05% naphazoline
nitrate was applied intranasally, and 4% lidocaine spray was administered twice with a 3 min interval between sprays.
The first day after CXL-WA, therapy was modified by adding Betamethasone 0.1% + Naphazoline
0.15% + Tetracycline 1% (Alfaflor[R]) eye drops 3/die and Iodopovidone 0.6% eye drops 3/die, to reduce the inflammation and to prevent bacterial contaminations; moxifloxacin 0.3% was stopped.
Drug class listed Drug name in publication Actual drug class Apraclonidine Adrenergic agonist [Alpha.sub.2]-agonist Brimonidine (ophthalmic) Adrenergic agonist [Alpha.sub.2]-agonist; antiglaucoma Dapiprazole Miotic Alpha-blocker Dipivefrine Prostaglandin Prodrug of epinephrine Naphazoline
(ophthalmic) Decongestant [Alpha.sub.1]-agonist; vasoconstrictor; imidazoline derivative Tetryzoline (ophthalmic) Decongestant Adrenergic agonist; vasoconstrictor; imidazoline derivative
The active ingredients tetrahydrozoline, oxymetazoline or naphazoline
are imidazoline derivatives, and they pose serious health repercussions upon consumption.
Goicoechea, "Simultaneous determination of naphazoline
, diphenhydramine and phenylephrine in nasal solutions by capillary electrophoresis," Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis, vol.
Nguyen, "Simultaneous determination of chloramphenicol, dexamethasone and naphazoline
in ternary and quaternary mixtures by RP-HPLC, derivative and wavelet transforms of UV ratio spectra," Spectrochimica Acta--Part A: Molecular & Biomolecular Spectroscopy, vol.
is commonly used as a topical nasal and ocular decongestant, and its therapeutic effect results from stimulation of peripheral postsynaptic [[alpha].sub.2]-adrenergic receptors.
(Naphcon, Vasocon) is the only one of the four that requires a prescription.
* Drug induced rhinitis are aspirin, NSAIDS, beta blockers, ace inhibitors, methyldopa, oral contraceptives, psychotropic agents and nasal topical agents (Oxymetazoline, naphazoline
, xylometazoline) may induce symptoms of rhinitis when they are administered topically or systematically.
Nasal ephedrine and naphazoline
are reported to induce bilateral AACG in the acute management of epistaxis2 and AY2-adrenergic agents (salbutamol albuterol terbutaline) with anticholinergic drugs might also trigger transient angle closure.1 Medications with indirect sympathomimetic activity including amphetamines some antidepressant agents (imipramine monoamine oxidase inhibitors) and cocaine have been shown to induce AACG.210 In our case epinephrine dopamine and nebulized agents were used in the ICU due to haemodynamic instability and bronchoconstriction.
These include naphazoline
hydrochloride (HCL), naphazoline
HCL combination products, tetrahydrozoline HCL, oxymetazoline HCL, and xylometazonline.