These peaks at m/z 83, 111, 125 are typical for monocyclic naphthenes
and are corresponding to the [CnH2n-1]+.
If [RQ.sub.1] = [RQ.sub.2] (e.g., blends of naphthenes
and alcohols), (N) does not yield "x" since RQ is independent of Fuel 1 mole fraction in blend.
Specific parameters are only deemed to increase the particle formation tendencies of a fuel and therefore have an index range from -1 to -8 (aromatics C10, aromatics >C10, naphthenes
C10, paraffins >C11, high boilings).
The RON 80 gasoline shows higher concentration of the saturated compositions (such as paraffins, isoparaffins, and naphthenes
) than the RON 92 E10, that is, the RON 80 gasoline is consisted of mostly paraffinic components.
They are characterized by the following values of chemical shifts : A, aromatic (6.2-8.0 ppm); B, olefin (4.0-6.2 ppm); C, methyl and methylene at [alpha]-position to the benzene ring (1.0-3.6 ppm); D, methine from paraffins and naphthenes
(1.5-2.0 ppm); E, methylene from paraffins and naphthenes
(1.05-1.5 ppm); F, methyl (0.5-1.05 ppm).
"Awareness of catalyst regeneration (part of a process used in the petroleum and petrochemical industries, which produces aromatics from naphthenes
and paraffins commonly used as motor fuel) should be promoted.
, what is the most popular cycloalkanes applied in the industry maybe cyclohexane, a colorless liquid, which is easy to volatile and burn.
Categorically the substrate during the present study was an extremely complex mixture of saturates (paraffins + some naphthenes
) as the chief constituents.
Aviation fuels consist of blends of over a thousand chemicals, primarily hydrocarbons (paraffins, olefins, naphthenes
, and aromatics), additives such as antioxidants and metal deactivators, and impurities.
Real-Time Analyzer's Portable Fuel Quality Analyzer (PFQA) determines the following physical and chemical properties for diesel, gasoline and jet fuels in 10 sec: cetane index, cloud point, density, distillation values (0, 50, 90 and 100%), flash point, freezing point, octane (AKI), pour point and viscosity; as well as aromatics, BTEX, biodiesel, ethanol, FSII, MTBE, naphthenes
, olefins, saturates and sulfur.
An aromatic hydrocarbon present in small proportion in some crude oils and made commercially from petroleum by the catalytic reforming of naphthenes
in petroleum naphtha.