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The study of nature and the physical universe, especially before the advent of modern science.
natural philosopher n.
American Heritage® Dictionary of the English Language, Fifth Edition. Copyright © 2016 by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Harcourt Publishing Company. All rights reserved.
(Education) (now only used in Scottish universities) physical science, esp physics
natural philosopher n
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|Noun||1.||natural philosophy - the science of matter and energy and their interactions; "his favorite subject was physics"|
phase space - (physics) an ideal space in which the coordinate dimensions represent the variables that are required to describe a system or substance; "a multidimensional phase space"
containment - (physics) a system designed to prevent the accidental release of radioactive material from a reactor
hodoscope - (physics) scientific instrument that traces the path of a charged particle
magnet - (physics) a device that attracts iron and produces a magnetic field
meniscus - (physics) the curved upper surface of a nonturbulent liquid in a vertical tube
nuclear reactor, reactor - (physics) any of several kinds of apparatus that maintain and control a nuclear reaction for the production of energy or artificial elements
metastability - the quality of a physical system that persists in its existing equilibrium when undisturbed (or only slightly disturbed) but able to pass to a more stable equilibrium when sufficiently disturbed
isotropy, symmetry - (physics) the property of being isotropic; having the same value when measured in different directions
wave-particle duality, duality - (physics) the property of matter and electromagnetic radiation that is characterized by the fact that some properties can be explained best by wave theory and others by particle theory
absorption factor, absorptivity - (physics) the property of a body that determines the fraction of the incident radiation or sound flux absorbed or absorbable by the body
reluctivity - (physics) the resistance of a material to the establishment of a magnetic field in it
rest mass - (physics) the mass of a body as measured when the body is at rest relative to an observer, an inherent property of the body
relativistic mass - (physics) the mass of a body in motion relative to the observer: it is equal to the rest mass multiplied by a factor that is greater than 1 and that increases as the magnitude of the velocity increases
gravitational mass - (physics) the mass of a body as measured by its gravitational attraction for other bodies
inertial mass - (physics) the mass of a body as determined by the second law of motion from the acceleration of the body when it is subjected to a force that is not due to gravity
mass energy - (physics) the mass of a body regarded relativistically as energy
flux density, flux - (physics) the number of changes in energy flow across a given surface per unit area
absorbance, optical density, photographic density, transmission density - (physics) a measure of the extent to which a substance transmits light or other electromagnetic radiation
quantum - (physics) the smallest discrete quantity of some physical property that a system can possess (according to quantum theory)
attracter, attractor - (physics) a point in the ideal multidimensional phase space that is used to describe a system toward which the system tends to evolve regardless of the starting conditions of the system
Bose-Einstein statistics - (physics) statistical law obeyed by a system of particles whose wave function is not changed when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli exclusion principle does not apply)
Dalton's law of partial pressures, law of partial pressures, Dalton's law - (chemistry and physics) law stating that the pressure exerted by a mixture of gases equals the sum of the partial pressures of the gases in the mixture; the pressure of a gas in a mixture equals the pressure it would exert if it occupied the same volume alone at the same temperature
Boltzmann distribution law, Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution law - (physics) a law expressing the distribution of energy among the molecules of a gas in thermal equilibrium
Fermi-Dirac statistics - (physics) law obeyed by a systems of particles whose wave function changes when two particles are interchanged (the Pauli exclusion principle applies)
Charles's law, Gay-Lussac's law, law of volumes - (physics) the density of an ideal gas at constant pressure varies inversely with the temperature
Hooke's law - (physics) the principle that (within the elastic limit) the stress applied to a solid is proportional to the strain produced
Kirchhoff's laws - (physics) two laws governing electric networks in which steady currents flow: the sum of all the currents at a point is zero and the sum of the voltage gains and drops around any closed circuit is zero
law of gravitation, Newton's law of gravitation - (physics) the law that states any two bodies attract each other with a force that is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them
law of thermodynamics - (physics) a law governing the relations between states of energy in a closed system
mass-energy equivalence - (physics) the principle that a measured quantity of mass is equivalent (according to relativity theory) to a measured quantity of energy
Planck's law - (physics) the basis of quantum theory; the energy of electromagnetic waves is contained in indivisible quanta that have to be radiated or absorbed as a whole; the magnitude is proportional to frequency where the constant of proportionality is given by Planck's constant
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