Marchand treats four types of clipping: back-clipping (lab for laboratory), fore-clipping (plane for airplane), clippings with the middle of the word retained (flu for influenza), and clipping-compounds (navicert
for navigation certificate).
A specially tailored version of the "navicert" system that Britain used during World Wars I and II offers a possible solution.
If a vessel were to violate the terms of the navicert, tamper with the permit or the tracking systems, or otherwise engage in behavior suggestive of an intent to violate the blockade, consequences could come in two fundamental forms.
The second, preferable method would occur at the "back end" of the navicert regime.
On 30 July 1940, Britain imposed compulsory "navicerts
" (navigation certificates) limiting how much Portugal could import by sea.
La neutralidad americana fue tan estricta que incluso protestaron por las medidas de control del comercio maritimo ejercido por el gobierno britanico a traves de los navicerts, unos certificados expedidos por los consulados britanicos que indicaban la carga de los barcos y su destino.
En ese momento se produjo la aceptacion del requisito britanico de su control naval por medio de los navicerts (12), asi como la intensificacion del vinculo con Gran Bretana.
The flow of supplies to the neutrals was controlled from London by the Ministry of Economic Warfare through a complex system in which cargoes were examined before departure; ships with approved cargoes were issued "navicerts" certificates of immunity from being stopped at sea.
Matson, Neutrality and Navicerts: Britain, the United States, and Economic Warfare, 1939-1940 (New York, 1994).