On the other hand, palynological studies allow us to determine botanical and geographic origin of honey in order to control its quality, as well as to recognize the species used for pollen and therefore nectariferous
flora of an area (Piedras & Quiroz, 2007).
Citrus sinensis is characterized as a nectariferous
species, since it has a nectariferous
camera with 6.5 mm diameter and presence of osmophores as likely responsible for the release of perfume.
Corolla gamopetalous, tubular-campanulate, infundibuliform, campanulate or hypocrateriform, sometimes with bilabiate apex, aestivation imbricate, zygomorphic; stamens included or exserted, 4, rarely reduced to 2, didynamous, staminode reduced, glabro, rarely elongate and pilose; filaments adnate to the corolla at the base; anthers commonly divergent, generally glabrous, rarely pilose; pollen grains many, in monads, rarely in tetrads or polyads; nectariferous
disk generally present; gynoecium bicarpellate, bilocular; ovary superior, multiovulate, placentation axial, stigma bilamelate, lobes sensitive (closing after contact with pollinator).
Consequently, the short generation time for buckwheat could be capitalized on as a supplemental forage crop for honey bee colonies in agricultural settings or planted during times when nectariferous
plants are scarce.
The frequent presence of Poaceae pollen found in the honey samples studied is probably a consequence of pollen from body bees, since plants of this family are not nectariferous
(Barth, 1989) but bees are known to collect pollen from their flowers.
robusta: the bee holds the pistil to access to nectariferous
camera (N for A.
The combination of characters present in this taxon: small pentamerous flowers with cupulate hypanthium ending in a thick presumably nectariferous
rim, triangular sepals with a prominent midvein or keel, thin clawed cucullate petals alternating with the sepals, and stamens opposite to the petals is not found in the Solanaceae or even in the Asteridae, but in the Rhamnaceae, a family that is today classified with the Order Rosales in the Rosid clade (APG, 1998, 2003).
In order to evaluate the botanical origin of the honeys, records of the presence of pollen grains from nectariferous
and non-nectariferous plants (entomophilous and anemophilous ones) were also performed according to the literature (Barth, 1989, 2005).
The stamens are 4-15, with filaments inserted on the nectariferous
Septal nectaries, nectariferous
surfaces, colleters and aspects related to pollination in Canna lineata Ciciarelli (Cannaceae-Zingiberales).