This way, some thoughts would acquire aversive functions because of being part of an overarching trigger signaling an abstract negative reinforcer
at the top of a hierarchical network of negative reinforcers
A negative reinforcer
is something for which the person will adapt their behaviour in order to avoid e.g.
The command is now a conditioned positive punisher (the dog's behavior makes a bad thing happen) and/or negative reinforcer
(the dog's behavior makes a bad thing go away; the punishment stops when the dog finally comes).
Reinforcement can be classified into four kinds: (a) positive reinforcement (giving positive reinforcer), (b) punishment (giving negative reinforcer
), (c) punishment (withdrawing positive reinforcer), and (d) negative reinforcement (withdrawing negative reinforcer
This is the idea behind using a negative reinforcer
to extinguish certain behaviors.
A child with autism was provided the opportunity to choose a positive reinforcer (i.e., potato chip) or negative reinforcer
(i.e., break) after completing a scheduled number of responses.
You can explain to help parents slow down the pattern but there is still that negative reinforcer
of that "desirable" number.
Indeed, stigmatization as a negative reinforcer
can have a salutary effect, minimizing needless visits to professional mental health professionals.
The lack of a negative reinforcer
and the continued absence of the CS-US pairing would predict an eventual abatement of avoidant responding.
The command is now a conditioned negative reinforcer
(dog's behavior makes a bad thing go away).
According to Skinner's definition, punishment is a procedure in which responses are followed by either (a) the removal of a positive reinforcer, or (b) the presentation of a negative reinforcer
(or aversive stimulus).
For example, Michael argued (and see also McDevitt & Fantino, 1993) that electric shock does not function as an operant discriminative stimulus for rats' lever pressing but rather (as a stimulus) establishes the operation by which shock removal functions as an operant negative reinforcer
. Similarly, food deprivation, which also produces a set of interoceptive states (e.g., Davidson, 1998) is not a discriminative stimulus for lever pressing but does establish the operation by which a food pellet functions as a positive reinforcer.