Psychologists describe how we usually respond strongly to initial positive or negative stimulus
, but when the stimulus is repeated often, our response becomes weaker, even reaching the point of extinction, meaning no response at all.
In turn, if the subjects' responses are slower in invalid trials following negative words as compared to responses on invalid trials following neutral words, this suggests that they have a problem with disengaging attention from a negative stimulus
(Amir et al., 2003; Derakshan et al., 2007; Hoppitt & Mackintosh, 2009; Cisler et al., 2009; Klumpp & Amir, 2009, Bannerman et al., 2010; see also Fox, 2002; Cisler & Koster, 2010).
The practice phase consisted of two types of blocks: "pro-Catholic" and "pro-Protestant." During a "pro-Catholic" practice block, participants had to affirm the relation between "Catholics" and "good" or "Protestants" and "bad," as well as reject the relation between "Catholics" and "bad" or "Protestants" and "good." Stated more precisely, a correct response required participants to select "True" when "Catholics" appeared with a positive stimulus (e.g., "nice") or when "Protestants" appeared with a negative stimulus
Alternate responses are created on the principle of Reciprocal Inhibition, where an incompatible response is produced to counter the negative stimulus
. Mathematics, which has become a threatening stimulus due to various reasons, can be de-conditioned by practicing these techniques based on reciprocal inhibition.
Control of adolescents' arbitrary matching to sample by positive and negative stimulus
This involves giving treats and praise as the negative stimulus
Furthermore, a congruent emotional negative stimulus
formed by painting and music affective stimuli presented simultaneously increased activity of structures involved in emotion processing (amygdala, hippocampus, parahippocampus, insula, striatum, medial ventral frontal cortex, cerebellum, fusiform gyrus; Baumgartner et al., 2006).
Positive reinforcement is particularly helpful for reducing stress as animals in fear of a negative stimulus
, such as a cattle prod, suffer from increased cortisol levels.
This is particularly significant, as it suggests that this is a characteristic response to negative stimulus
in GAD, and these patients' negative bias could not change at the early stage of perception after reappraisal.
Religion once considered a binding force in Pakistani milieu seems to have become a negative stimulus
, which reinforces divisive thoughts, feelings of hatred and notions of vengeance among general public.
Both training methods use gradual exposure to a negative stimulus
to change the cat's association to a positive one.