In conventional banana, carbamate (carbofuran, oxamyl) and organophosphate (cadusafos, ethroprophos, terbufos) nematicides
were commonly applied in the same farm in rotating cycles, both being highly toxic to parasitoids (Plapp and Vinson 1997).
solanacearum management tactic is the application of nematicides
at an average cost of $250/ha (C.S.
The long-time farmer explained that when some of the effective nematicides
were taken off the market he saw his vines begin to decline.
Crop dusters spray fungicides up to 40 times a year, often in the form of "cocktails" of two or more mixed pesticides and often when workers are in the fields; plantation workers directly apply highly toxic nematicides
to the ground around banana trees two to four times a year in order to kill nematode worms; and workers spray herbicides on plantation grounds eight to 12 times a year, and douse the fields with large amounts of chemical fertilizers.
use of nematicides
, soil amendments, soil solarization etc.
Moreover, use of integrated pest management techniques and phasing out chemical fumigant nematicides
owing to the environmental hazards.
With the results of unfavorable toxicology and the ecology of chemical nematicides
such as methyl bromide, aldicarb, and fosthiazate, fluensulfone has brought new challenges for nematode management.
The present findings are supported by earlier works wherein integration of bio-control agents with fungicides and nematicides
gave significantly higher disease control in several crops than that obtained either by bio-control agent or by fungicide or by nematicide
Globally, many synthetic nematicides
have been effectively used to suppress RKNs in the soil.
With many chemical pesticides restricted or eliminated due to their toxicity to mammals and other organisms, biological nematicides
can provide an effective, more sustainable solution, concluded the company.
provide efficient control measure, but their use is very restricted and has been declining drastically during last few years, especially due to high toxicity to mammalians, long persistence in the ecosystem, and high costs (AKHTAR & MALIK, 2000; FERRAZ & FREITAS, 2004).
Even though a few herbicides are needed while the plants are getting established, once that happens; there's no need for more, or for any fungicides, insecticides, or nematicides