They have been reported to parasitize acoels, platyhelminthes, annelids, molluscs, nemerteans
, echinoderms, and chordates; and it has been suggested that they are present in the host animals as multinucleate plasmodia (Slyusarev and Miller, 1998).
examined Bucephalus Bivalves 1993 1994 Tellina agius & versicolor 8 10 586 6 Gemma gemma 5 2 141 1 Haminea solitaria 2 0 31 0 Ensis directus 6 5 157 0 Mullinea lateralis 8 4 56 1 Anadara ovalis 0 1 4 0 Tagelus plebeius 0 2 6 0 Nucula proximo 0 1 13 0 Lyonsia hyalina Polychaetes Diopatra cuprea 0 2 16 0 Glycera dibranchiata 0 6 15 0 Hydroides diathus & 0 1 132 0 Filograna implexa Platynereis dumerilii 0 3 15 0 Nemerteans
Cerebratulus lacteus 0 7 15 0 Anemones Actinothoe modesta & 0 6 21 0 Edwardsia elegans Barnacles Balanus sp.
Nevertheless, over the last decade, the training of young taxonomists has expanded investigation to other groups, such as polyclad flatworms (Quiroga, Bolanos, & Litvaitis, 2004), lophophorates (Florez-Romero, Montoya-Cadavid, Reyes-Forero, & Santodomingo, 2007), sipunculan annelids (Gomez, Ardila, & Sanjuan-Munoz, 2013), and nemerteans
(Gonzalez-Cueto, Quiroga, & Norenburg, 2014).
Statistical parsimony networks and species assemblages in cephalotrichid nemerteans
Global diversity of nemerteans
(Nemertea) in freshwater.
Invertebrates were also consumed, including mollusks, chaetognaths, nematodes, nemerteans
, trematodes, polychaetes, and crustaceans.
Authority Bering Sea area Skalkin (1963) Southeastern Mineva (1964) Eastern Feder (1977, 1978) Eastern Allen(1) (1984) Southeastern Zhang (1987) Eastern Lang (1992) Eastern Authority Major food items Skalkin (1963) Benthic crustaceans, mollusks, polychaetes Mineva (1964) Bivalves, gastropods, polychaetes Feder (1977, 1978) Polychaetes, bivalves, amphipods, nemerteans
Allen(1) (1984) Benthopelagic, epifaunal, sessil infaunal preys Zhang (1987) Polychaetes, amphipods, Echiura, Sipuncula Lang (1992) Polychaetes, amphipods, bivalves, decapods
. - Egg predators in the genera Carcinonemetres and Pseudocarcinonemertes can cause very substantial mortality of eggs in the clutches of Dungeness crabs (Cancer magister), red king crabs (Paralithodes camtschatica), and American lobsters (Homarus americanus) (reviewed in Kuris ).
Terrestrial mollusks, arthropods, and vertebrates are tolerant of desiccation and therefore are more fully terrestrial than are cryptozoic taxa such as platyhelminths, nemerteans
, annelids, and onychophorans (Little 1983).
Animals were separated into their major groups: annelids, crustaceans, mollusks, nemerteans
, ophiuroids, sipunculids, and others and put on aluminum pans.
This combination prohibited large nemerteans
(e.g., Cerebratulus lacteus) and other predatory infauna from entering the unit from the bottom (via drainage holes) or the top.
For all treatments, nemerteans
were held in small petri dishes (100 mm X 15 mm) filled with artificial seawater (30 ppt), and maintained at room temperature (24-25 [degrees]C) in an incubator (Innova 4200, New Brunswick Scientific, Enfield, CT) connected to a timed lighting system (12 h light/12 h dark).