Reflecting on their practices and experiences in urban and rural schools, in the language of neo-Lamarckian
eugenics, they described their encounters with a people who were allegedly isolated, illiterate, and traditional.
The chapter on Wells draws upon theories of insanity, genius and neo-Lamarckian
thought, which stated that over-development of the intellect (and therefore brain) would lead to other parts of the body becoming atrophied.
evolutionism, and the social sciences, and presents
These theories have been generally classified as "neo-Lamarckian
," "orthogenetic", and "saltational" or mutational (Bowler, 1992).
Since the discovery of the double helix, legitimate scientists have had to be neo-Darwinian, and in this binary, with-us-or-against-us world it's hard to be both neo-Darwinian and neo-Lamarckian
. But a few brave scientists have managed, and, according to Leslie Pray, who has written extensively about this topic, "in the last twenty years investigators have uncovered enough molecular detail to convince the scientific community at large that the epigenome matters," at least in the organism's development (2005, 71).
The language of 'blood' in Beer-Hofmann's Der Tod Georgs is related to the conflict between August Weismann's theory of the unchangeable germplasm and the neo-Lamarckian
view that acquired characteristics could be inherited (which implied that racial 'degeneration' could be reversed, Jews assimilated to Gentile society, and human character modified by social reforms).
thinking, for example, we can identify a desire to see the physical results of culture on the body, to see the body itself as the carrier and mark of cultural instruction.(13) Charlotte Perkins Gilman produced, in both Women and Economics and Herland, a political response to Darwinian and Spencerian evolutionism that both incorporated and resisted evolutionary arguments concerning sexual difference.
In addition, the paper argues that the action to strive to attain greater net product differs from the action stemming from, what is dubbed here, "rationality optimization." (It is called "rationality optimization" rather than "optimization" because there are different kinds of optimization which do not stem from decisions, such as evolutionary and market optimization resulting from competition.) Also, the paper locates the key difference between neo-Darwinian and neo-Lamarckian
theories with regard to evolution of the genotype/institution scheme.