Cardamom oil consists of vital elements such as methyl eugenol, pinene, sabinene, linalyl acetate, geraniol, nerol
, citronellol, etc.
Components Caryophyllene 0.00 Diacetone alcohol 0.00 Heptadecane 1.33 Germacrene-D 0.40 Geranyl acetate 0.31 Citronellol 1.81 Nerol
2.33 Acetic acid, phenylethyl ester 0.65 Geraniol 3.37 Benzyl alcohol 0.57 Nonadecane 14.89 9-Nonadecane 3.09a Phenyl ethyl alcohol 22.16 Eicosane 1.18 Heneicosane 9.78 Tricosane 10.89 Triacontane 12.95 Tetradecanol 0.73 1-octanyl-4-ol 1.23a 2-ethyl-2-methyl-1,3-propandiol 1.07 1-octanol,2,2,dimethyl 1.20 Concrete efficiency (%) 0.34 Table 2.
The compounds produced by the essential oil of lime leaves include limonene, [beta] pinen, sabinene, (E)-[beta]-Ocimene, a-pinen, myrcene, linalool, geranial, neral, citronellol, geranilacetate, nerilacetate, geraniol, and anti fungal nerol
In plants they are derived from 9-hydroxy nerol
by phosphorylation followed by cyclization, oxidation and glycosidation in several steps .
Our group has been investigating interactions between components of mixed monolayers and between monolayers and the sub-phase with an objective to examine and control the reactivity in various systems such as the film of monoterpenoid alcohol, nerol
, over acidic subphase , of 1-phenyl-1-hexadecanol over chromic acid , mixed monolayers of octadecylamine and 1-octadecanethiol , a long-chain thiourea and a fatty acid  and several others [9-14].
Eur J Nerol
. 2005;12(2):103-7, doi: 10.1111/j.1468-1331.2004.00956.
Other products such as [beta]-caryophyllene, isoledene, elemene, 1.8-cineole, copaene, and nerol
are also present with variable ratios.
Chemical standards of [alpha]-pinene, linalool, [alpha]-humulene ([alpha]-caryophyllene), nerol
, 2-phenylethyl alcohol (PEA), [beta]-caryophyllene, citronellol, geraniol, methyl eugenol, and eugenol were supplied from Sigma Aldrich (USA) while NaCl was purchased from Merck (Germany).
This plant gathers medicinal importance due to the presence of eugenol, fernesol, nerol
, tryptanthrine, indigo, indirubin, isatin, linoleic acid, [alpha]- and [beta]-amirins, carotenoids, sterols, phenolic compounds, rutin, quercetin, kaempherol, famaricetin, luteolin, saponin, alkaloids, terpenoids, tannins, triterpenoids, anthocyanin, flavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones, citric acid, tartaric acid, couroupitine, and pelargonidin glycosides [6-8].
Some of the major compounds include monoterpene hydrocarbons (p-cymene, limonene, [alpha]-pinene, and [alpha]-terpinene), oxygenated monoterpenes (camphor, carvacrol, eugenol, and thymol), diterpenes (cembrene C, kaurene, and camphorene), sesquiterpene hydrocarbons ([beta]-caryophyllene, germacrene D, and humulene), oxygenated sesquiterpenes (spathulenol, caryophyllene oxide), monoterpene alcohols (geraniol, linalool, and nerol
), sesquiterpene alcohol (patchoulol), aldehydes (citral, cuminal), acids (geranic acid, benzoic acid), ketones (acetophenone, benzophenone), lactones (bergapten), phenols (eugenol, thymol, carvacrol, and catechol), esters (bornyl acetate, ethyl acetate), and coumarins (fumarin, benzofuran) [1, 4, 8, 13, 104, 105].