In forensic cases, the presence of a separate neural arch
(spondylolysis) can be supportive evidence for an identification (Klepinger 2010; Owsley & Mann 1992; Slaus et al.
Computed tomography (CT) of the spine in the sagittal orientation and 3-dimensional (3D) CT further revealed the involvement of the superior end plate of the L2 vertebra, comprising horizontal splitting from the left pedicle, through the left transverse process, and reaching the center of the neural arch
spondyloptosis) Etiologic (Wiltse (3)) classification * Type 1: Dysplastic Congenital defect of the neural arch
* Type 2: Isthmic Pars interarticularis defect (3 subtypes) a) Stress (fatigue) fracture (most common type, present in this case) b) Elongated pars c) Acute pars fracture * Type 3: Degenerative Facet joint osteoarthrosis * Type 4: Traumatic Acute fracture of the vertebral arch other than the pars * Type 5: Pathological Insufficiency fracture as a result of bone weakening diseases * Type 6: Iatrogenic Fracture secondary to spinal surgery such as laminectomy Table 2.
Description: Middle or posterior caudal vertebra lacking the neural arch
INTRODUCTION: Pedicle is highly loaded with elements of neural arch
along with facets and laminae.
The fatigue strength of the lumbar neural arch
For spinal fracture research, the team first statically evaluates the performance of the vertebrae when loaded to failure across the neural arch
, helping to determine both the amount of force required and the bone deflection at failure.
The cartilaginous neural arch
and spine of PU2 (NPU2) is present opposite the parhypural.
Remarks--Holman (8) described this small erycine snake as having a vertebral form much wider than long, an extremely depressed neural arch
, a neural spine that overhangs posteriorly and is about as high as long, and a moderately wide, distinct hemal keel with distinct, robust subcentral ridges and well defined, deep subcentral grooves.
The hangman's fracture (traumatic spondylolisthesis of the axis) represents fractures of the neural arch
of C2 that are produced by a hyper-extension force.
SEKI-20167 is nearly complete, missing only a portion of the posterior neural arch
rise and the lateral extensions of the transverse processes.
Chapter 10, entitled "Functional Pathology", discusses posture and its effects on, for example, disc nutrition, the neural arch
, and muscle action, then discusses creep in spinal tissues, and finally muscle function and dysfunction.