As cardiac performance decreases, all neurohormonal
systems are progressively stimulated in an attempt to sustain cardiac output and circulatory homeostasis.
Valsartan also was associated with significant improvements in heart failure signs and symptoms, ejection fraction, quality of life, and neurohormonal
profile, which were secondary end points.
High tumour necrosis factor-[alpha] levels are associated with the exercise intolerance and neurohormonal
activation in chronic heart failure patients.
Plasma brain natriuretic peptide levels declined from 514 to 204 pg/mL, indicative of a welcome decrease in neurohormonal
activation, the cardiologist said.
profile of spironolactone in severe congestive heart failure: results from the RALES neurohormonal
"When we have already blocked one neurohormonal
system after another--the renin-angiotensin system with an ACE inhibitor, the sympathetic nervous system using a [beta]-blocker, aldosterone with spironolactone--the additional benefit is not what we expected," he observed.
hypothesis: a theory to explain the mechanisms of disease progression in heart failure.
Initial data look promising for a calcium sensitizer called levosimendan, but results so far are mixed for a neurohormonal
antagonist called tezosentan.
Natriuretic peptides [BNP and N-terminal proBNP (NT-proBNP)] are taking their place in the new generation of neurohormonal
markers used to diagnose HF (23, 24).
CNHs and their respective counter-regulatory neurohormonal
systems (including the adrenergic, endothelin, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone systems) form a physiologic negative feedback mechanism that regulates cardiac output by controlling blood pressure and heart rate as well as by fluid and electrolyte homeostasis (1, 2).
Conversely, the lack of association of NP concentrations with NPRC genotypes in NYHA III-IV patients might imply that other mechanisms have a major role in determining neurohormonal
abnormalities in patients with more severe disease.
This is an important finding because nesiritide (Natrecor), a recombinant form of human B-type natriuretic peptide with neurohormonal
and vasoactive properties, is more expensive than furosemide and other diuretics.