Conclusions: The regional volume gain of brainstem could underlie the neuromechanism of impaired ascending and descending pathway in the MOH patients, and the left RVM volume alteration could imply the impaired tolerance of nociceptive pain input and could be used to assess the headache disability in the MOH patients.
There were some limitations to the current study, including (1) it was a cross-sectional study and the longitudinal VBM evaluation could provide more information to understand the neuromechanism of MOH and (2) the subtle structural alterations in the brainstem could effectively assess the brain's pathophysiological condition in MOH with medication overuse.
In conclusion, the regional volume gain of the brainstem was identified in the MOH patients in this study; it could underlie the neuromechanism of the ascending and descending pathways in MOH.
Further research is required to improve understanding of the neuromechanism
and to determine the behavioral effects of tDCS on CS in a larger multicentered, randomized controlled study to determine the possibility of transferability to everyday cognition.
Conceptualized in 1904 and demonstrated in 1913 by Sir Charles Sherrington, the neuromechanism
for this is called reciprocal innervation.
Recently, the neuroimaging methods are widely adopted to evaluate the effect of cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) and explore the neuromechanism
of cognitive dysfunction of schizophrenia.
Despite the vast recent literature demonstrating the analgesic effects of neuromodulatory techniques, the neuromechanisms
involved in both tDCS and TMS-induced analgesia remain largely uncovered.
The editor has organized the forty-nine contributions that make up the main body of his text in eight sections devoted to neuromechanisms
in brain injury, management in CNS trauma, modeling brain injury, imaging and biomarkers, neurocognitive and neurobehavioraltopics in brain injury, neurorehabilitation and neuroprotection, mild brain injury and sport concussion, and substance abuse and comorbid conditions.
Brain research on healthy mental operations is now revealing neuromechanisms associated with sensory perception, learning, memory, imagination, and emotions that are of increasing relevance for educators and instructional designers.
Further discussion of the neuromechanisms associated with human learning goes beyond the purpose of this article.
Progress in understanding the genetics, adaptive value, and neuromechanisms
of conditionability could contribute to robust evolutionary explication of the preparedness phenomenon.
MRI has played a key role in the diagnosis, evaluation, and understanding of migraine neuromechanisms