, 2001) mistook devolution into psychological misorientation
Cross's model of assertions of Black identity development was first referred to as "nigrescence
" or "the process by which a person becomes Black" (Helms, 1990, p.
Aziboists are critical of the nigrescence
and other racial
Among those most cited or "mainstream" are Cross's (1971, 1995) "Nigrescence
" models, Helms' (1984) People of Color model, and Jackson's (1975, 2012) Black Identity Development models.
The Cross Racial Identity Scale (CRIS; Vandiver et al., 2000) is an instrument that measures racial attitudes determined by the Expanded Nigrescence
theory (Cross & Vandiver, 2001).
William Cross's Nigrescence
theory of black identity development was used to help members process incidents of racial discrimination as well as their feelings toward whites, the United States, and black people as a group.
Conceptions of it that might be applied to the transracial adoptee population include: (1) models of nigrescence
, or the process of becoming black, and the various applications of this theory to other groups (Cross Jr, 1995; Helms, 1995); (2) ethnic identity development (Casas and Pytluk, 1995); (3) biracial identity development (Cohen and Ponterotto, 1995); and (4) racial identity in people adopted transracially (Alexander and Curtis, 1996; Baden, 2002).
Downing and Roush (1985) introduced the only model of feminist identity development for women which consists of five stages and was heavily based on Cross' (1971) model of psychological Nigrescence
. The five stages of the Feminist Identity Development model include: Passive Acceptance, Revelation, Embeddedness-Emanation, Synthesis and Active Commitment.
We are thus facilitated on an exploration into realizations of Rastafari as both destination and ongoing process in the context of nigrescence
Career development and African Americans: A contextual reappraisal using the nigrescence
Theory: One Theory of Black Racial Identity
I was coming into what William Cross, as discussed in Tatum, calls the "encounter" stage within his model called the psychology of nigrescence
. During intermittent times in my life race was salient to me.