During the last several decades there have been alarming increases in Aspergillosis, Candidiasis, Cryptococcosis, Nocardiosis
, and Zygomycosis; which to some degree appears to be related to medical treatments such as chemotherapeutic agents, irradiation, immunosuppressive agents, broad spectrum antibiotics, and hyperalimentation as well as conditions such as malignancies, AIDS, malnutrition, metabolic diseases, receipt of multiple injections, certain surgeries, burns, intravenous hyperalimentation, and certain malignancies.
Sulfur granules maybe numerous; however, the presence of sulfur granules is neither sensitive nor specific for actinomycosis, also being seen in nocardiosis
, chromomycosis, and botryomycosis.
Recently, the LUMC ASP implemented a policy that mandates an ID evaluation or consultation for patients with Staphylococcus aureus bacteremia, carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) infections (except urinary isolates), Candida auris infections, fungemia, nocardiosis
, mucormycosis, cryptococcosis, multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteremia from any of the following pathogens: daptomycin and vancomycin-resistant enterococci, daptomycin-resistant S.
If that panel was formed and HIV infection was diagnosed, then the case in question would truly widen the spectrum of Nocardiae species of HIV-associated pulmonary Nocardiosis
; a rarely reported topic in the world's literature.
The clinical differential diagnoses included lupus vulgaris, chromoblastomycosis, cutaneous nocardiosis
, atypical mycobacterial infection and pyoderma vegetans as diagnosis of exclusion.
However, there is a study that reported a nocardiosis
infection in an elderly patient who received oral steroid treatment after ESD .
(c) End treatment response (ETR): one of the patients included in this study, who was on Sofosbuvir/Ribavirin, expired during study due to Nocardiosis
, after achieving EVR.
Nocardia asteroides is the most common causative agent of pulmonary nocardiosis
, accounting for 85% of all cases .
is a potentially lethal opportunistic infection in transplant recipients on immunosuppressive therapy [1-4].
Although no specific guidelines exist regarding antimicrobial therapy for nocardiosis
in lung transplant recipients, ongoing immunosuppression often requires prolonged multidrug therapy to reduce the chances of relapse or disease progression .
Various opportunistic infections have been reported in patients with GCA, including invasive aspergillosis, nocardiosis
, tuberculosis, varicellazoster infection, and pneumocystis pneumonia.
The patients were classified into three groups: (a) PJP (19 cases): included patients with PJP and patients with diagnosis of PJP plus another pulmonary infection/disease; (b) patients with CAP (18 cases); and (c) other diagnosis (23 cases of lower respiratory infection: nine cases of tuberculosis, five cases of histoplasmosis, two cases of nocardiosis
, one case of cryptococcosis, one case of disseminated strongyloidiasis, one case of pulmonary embolism, and three undiagnosed cases).