It has also been shown that sleep spindles, or sudden spikes in oscillatory brain activity that can be seen on an electroencephalogram (EEG) during the second stage of non-REM sleep
, are key for this memory consolidation.
Neuroimaging studies on fibromyalgia patients have revealed functional sleep disturbances including reduced short-wave sleep and the presence of abnormal [alpha]-rhythms or waves (usually present when we are awake, but relaxed), during delta wave deep sleep, which suggest frequent awakenings during non-REM sleep
These studies found that patients with FMS had abnormality in delta wave in the deepest phase of sleep, as well as electroencephalogram (EEG) pattern of non-REM sleep
which is disrupted by alpha waves of 10-12 cycles/second.
The following vPSG data were obtained and analyzed: awakenings; total sleep time (TST); sleep efficiency (SE); sleep latency (SL); REM sleep latency (REML); wake after sleep onset (WASO); percentage of sleep spent in non-REM sleep
stage (NREM) 1, NREM2, NREM3, and REM sleep; arousal index; apnea-hypopnea index (AHI); minimal oxygen saturation (SaO[sub]2); mean SaO[sub]2; and the percentage of time spent at SaO[sub]2 <90% (time − [SaO[sub]2 <90%]).
The misinterpretation of a non-REM sleep
parasomnia as suicidal behavior in an adolescent.
While alcohol has a natural sedative effect that might help you go to sleep initially, it can exacerbate sleeplessness because it disturbs the balance between REM sleep (lighter sleep that includes dreaming) and non-REM sleep
(deep sleep), preventing the brain from performing the normal restorative job it does overnight.
One potential neural mechanism by which this could occur is replay, a phenomenon where neural activity patterns in the hippocampus evoked by a previous experience reactivate spontaneously during non-REM sleep
, leading to coordinated cortical reactivation.
has published the results of a 2014 crossover-based, single-blind, randomized and placebo-controlled trial series that reveals the relationship between [gamma]-Aminobutyric acid (GABA) and both the time it takes to achieve sleep, and the length of non-REM sleep
The first sleep cycle of the night goes through non-REM sleep
and through REM sleep in about ninety minutes.
What we showed is that these neurons triggered all aspects of REM sleep, including muscle paralysis and the typical cortical activation that makes the brain look more awake than in non-REM sleep
Another consideration relates to the dynamics of neuronal circuits during wakefulness, REM and non-REM sleep
, and sedation.
But as we get older, sleep quality declines and we experience a change in sleeping patterns - whether that's more frequent awakenings in the night, loss of non-REM sleep
or more daytime napping.