Over a half mile of trails, including a one-sixth of a mile wheelchair accessible stretch, allows easy access for nonconsumptive
effects can influence the behavior of individuals in a population and subsequently alter how that population interacts with the community (Hawlena and Schmitz, 2010; Dupuch et al.
First, meta-analysis of research on the effects of resources on plastic prey responses found that studies that use dynamic resource populations, as seen under natural conditions and unlike the static resources provided here, produce stronger negative nonconsumptive
predator effects (Preisser et al.
Revisiting the classics: considering nonconsumptive
effects in textbook examples of predator-prey interactions.
uses can exclude other uses as well, by changing the flow of a river (through the use of dams and reservoirs) or the water quality (through pollution or wetland degradation).
Described colorfully as "landscapes of fear," the indirect or nonconsumptive
effects of the threat of predation are increasingly recognized as important determinants of ecosystem structuring.
Necessary Adjustments: Tax Reductions for Nonconsumptive
The category recognizes the best outdoor recreation work from the various nonconsumptive
What Chile does have are some very powerful rivers, particularly in the south, where Endesa enjoys a monopoly on nonconsumptive
water rights and can be expected to continue proposing--and constructing, when it can--large-scale hydroelectric dams.
pdf (calling green sea turtles '"the most valuable reptile in the world,' not in reference to [their] meat, fat, and other consumables, but rather to [their] aesthetic value and value for nonconsumptive
uses such as ecotourism and scientific study").
Individual use of consumer property for nonconsumptive
purposes was made punishable by the criminalization of "speculative" behavior and campaigns against traders.
Additionally, landowners are generally more nonconsumptive
in nature than consumptive (Campbell and Kittredge 1992).