fanfare, the noncooperator
's conviction and substantial sentence.
If the early human being depended on group selection (Hayek 1988; Sober and Wilson 1998; Zywicki 2000; Field 2004), one who cooperated with those who were socially near would tend to prosper, particularly if expulsion, stoning, withholding of food, and other forms of punishment were visited on the noncooperator
. The beings that survived are those for whom synchronous behavior habituates sympathy, increases social nearness, and conduces to greater cooperation.
The job of each variant under this proposal is to convey why advantage is conferred on the cooperator, at the expense of the noncooperator
, and thus to conclude that the heritable traits on which cooperative strategies rest get selected for by ordinary evolutionary processes.
Patients' cooperation with a medical regimen: difficulties in identifying the noncooperator
. JAMA 1968; 203: 120-4.
It also helps the influencer resist the temptation to stereotype the noncooperator
Indeed, failed super-groups consist of a higher fraction of noncooperators
, that is, the average unconditional contribution of their members is lower in both Part 1 and Part 3.
This theory is plausible only if the Guidelines ranges are in fact "inflated" compared to ranges for noncooperators
. To test this theory, I calculated the average minimum Guidelines range produced in both lands of cases: (1) cases where the defendant cooperated, and (2) cases where the defendant did not cooperate but still received a below-range sentence.
Evidence also shows that many people have a tendency to cooperate voluntarily, and to punish noncooperators
(Fehr, Fischbacher, & Gachter, 2002).
In many mathematical models, a system in which noncooperators
are punished seems stable, once established.
They developed a model that allows individuals who are responsible for punishing noncooperators
(e.g., law enforcers and government officials) to fail to cooperate themselves by acting in a corrupt manner.
McAdams' requirement of visibility, together with his conception of withheld esteem as a form of punishment, parallel the two most important components of "knittedness"--reputational information plus the ability to punish noncooperators
. (95) But the esteem theory differs from Ellickson's collective action perspective in two important respects.
The people who stopped production were often invisible--categorized as cooperators or noncooperators
, but with little consideration of their agency in choosing (more or less voluntarily) to stop growing opium poppy.