The general approach involves incorporating noncoplanar
structure, unsymmetrical structures, bulky pendent group and flexible ether linkage into the polymer backbone .
According to crystallographic theory, the size and shape of the unit cell will be unchanged only if it is possible to find three noncoplanar
, rational lattice vectors in the original crystal that have the same lengths and mutual angles after shearing." 
corporate-fed 4 x 4 antenna array constructed from sequentially rotated 2 x 2 subarrays was presented in , and the proposed array obtained a 1 dB ARBW of 47.8%.
(2) The geometric parameters including flaw inclination angle and ligament angle of noncoplanar
flaws have a significant influence on the final failure modes of the sandstone specimen.
beam angles were not investigated in this study, which may further improve the quality of the plan.
The freehand 3D ultrasound system used in this study consisted of an ultrasound scanner (Ultramark 400c; ATL Ultrasound Inc., Bothell, WA) with a curvilinear probe (CLA 3.5/40), an optical tracking system (Optotrak 3020, Northern Digital Inc., Waterloo, Canada) with 5 noncoplanar
infrared (IR) diodes attached on the ultrasound probe as well as on each phantom to keep track of the probe and phantom's pose with respect to the world coordinate system, and a personal computer with a frame grabber and a data acquisition card installed for capturing ultrasound images.
Meanwhile, these curves can be divided into two classes which are the coplanar curves and the noncoplanar
curves according to the coplanarity of the initial and final configurations.
All couples of limbs must be noncoplanar
in space and not parallel in space.
Shueng et al., "Comparison of coplanar and noncoplanar
intensity-modulated radiation therapy and helical tomotherapy for hepatocellular carcinoma," Radiation Oncology, vol.
Small-volume image-guided radiotherapy using hypofractionated, coplanar, and noncoplanar
multiple fields for patients with inoperable Stage I nonsmall cell lung carcinomas.
2010); three of these are noncoplanar
and without defined TEFs to take into account.
and nonisocentric radiation beams can be delivered by CyberKnife.