Together with a very plausible principle governing the acquisition of knowledge by nondeductive
inference based on evidence, K [not subset or equal to] E leads, in a sorites-like fashion, to what would seem a series of unacceptably bootstrapping expansions of one's evidence.
Another perspective would be that of viewing a deduction problem as an information retrieval or binary classification problem, and then applying nondeductive
techniques to solve this task (Hitzler and van Harmelen 2010).
For Aristotle, as Nussbaum noted, "[practical insight is like perceiving in the sense that it is non-inferential, non-deductive; it is, centrally, the ability to recognize, acknowledge, respond to, pick out certain salient features of a complex situation." (123) It follows from this that praxis "cannot even in principle be adequately captured in a system of universal rules--and hence cannot be the subject of episteme, because it has to do with mutability, indeterminacy, and particulars." (124) This rendering in the classic tradition of praxis as a nondeductive
and nonrepresentational form of knowledge had profound consequences for modern perspectives on the nature and meanings of social practices.
She defines it as "a nondeductive
comparative type of practical reasoning that is carried on in cooperation with others.
Unofficially, as one can tell from a careful reading of "Logical Empiricism" and related essays, he actually found both observation and nondeductive
forms of inference troubling in various respects, and his concern with problems related to them and to what he called semantic realism resulted in vigorous and productive discussions among the staff of and visitors to his Center for Philosophy of Science in the late fifties.
Expanding their material on cooperative enterprise, nondeductive
arguments and information technology, Cederblom (U.
Although it superficially resembles both induction and deduction, conduction is described more accurately as a nondeductive
, a priori, particularist way of arguing "in which (1) a conclusion about some individual case (2) is drawn nonconclusively (3) from one or more premises about the same case (4) without any appeal to other cases" (p.
I have argued that one must be able to postulate a causal or more broadly explanatory connection between one's belief and the object of belief in order for one's inferred (nondeductive
) belief to be rational.
It construes prediction as deduction; yet, many predictions involve nondeductive
(Before deciding how likely it is to draw a red ball out of an urn, one has to know not only something about the contents of the urn but also from which urn the ball came.) The statistical view of prior knowledge also provides no way of making sense of operations that are nondeductive
- it cannot, for example, make sense of its very own use of the "juror as statistician" metaphor, because creating or invoking metaphors is not an operation in statistical theory.
Through their "situation sense," judges assess facts with reference to "a significant life-problem-situation into which they comfortably fit."(82) Having typified a case and identified key, relevant components, they "let the particular equities begin to register" in light of common sense, appreciation for society's needs, "feel for an appropriate rule," and respect for precedent.(83) Both understandings give a central role to nondeductive
reasoning and judgments arising from the decisionmaker's background experience.
Moreover he is trying to help usher in a worldview shift, which is messy, nondeductive