Two-tailed test used for nondirectional
Therefore, a nondirectional
test is performed for this variable.
The polarities of directed and nondirectional
interplay (and all that they represent: competition vs.
 For example, if a study was undertaken with 100 participants (50 male, 50 female, so [n.sub.1] = [n.sub.2] = 50) to detect differences (nondirectional
, therefore two-tailed) in learning styles, and alpha was set at .05, the power of the study at different effect sizes is as follows:
Because of the lack of previous research in the area, the following nondirectional
hypothesis was tested: Level of client spirituality will not affect the perceived effectiveness of a counselor who uses a spiritual versus a nonspiritual approach to counseling.
Designed for the land, we smell nothing underwater, taste only the metallic twang of compressed air, see poorly, and are reduced to nondirectional
hearing; in effect, we're disabled.
Using a nondirectional
measure of work--family conflict, Good and colleagues (Good, Page, & Young, 1996; Good, Sisler, & Gentry, 1988) found support for the direct effects of this construct on turnover.
In fact, it should be noted that a nondirectional
chi-square analysis would have indicated that included students were overrepresented in the indifference category (23.9% of indifference students were included students with disabilities; [chi square](1, N = 201) = 18.07, p [is less than] .001).
Table 4 shows the negative, positive, and nondirectional
changes of children's levels of conceptualization of force, and that the chi-square value of change is 9.66 (df = p <.01.
While improved conduct and interpersonal relations seemed likely, the possibility of abreaction or rebelliousness required nondirectional
data analytic procedures.
Observed behavior within a group may vary from nondirectional
milling to traveling rapidly in a closely packed, unidirectional manner, to resting at the surface.
The diversity of life on earth is the outcome of evolution: a natural process of temporal descent with genetic modification that is nondirectional
, except for human intervention, and is explicable by principles of physical and biological science including natural selection, changing environments, chance, and historical contingencies.