They say the fact that "relevant empirical and institutional variables are costly to measure" (they are speaking of the variables relevant to the choice between loose and strict construction) is "hardly an argument for nonempirical
At bottom, it simply assumes, in the fashion of nonempirical
rational choice discussions, that one of many potential foci will be chosen--and, for that matter, that any focus will emerge (147)--and ignores the instrumental role of custom in doing so.
The essential question is whether knowledge, by its nature, especially that pertaining to policymaking and political rule, is nonempirical
Art practices are noninstrumental, nonempirical
, and nondeterminate, and its representations are not those of conceptual rationality, "the unsolved antagonisms of reality return in artworks as immanent problems of form.
Carper describes personal knowledge as an important nonempirical
component of "knowing" in effective wholistic nursing practice.
articles, how did the authors come to their conclusions?
Academic articles can comprise empirical studies employing experimental, survey, or archival data, and nonempirical
research of a modeling or analytical nature.
Lascher's contribution is a concise, though nonempirical
, treatise on how policymakers evaluate likely policy outcomes (e.
Kukla belabors the point that it is not inconsistent to rely upon nonempirical
virtues to justify empirical beliefs while denying them an epistemic role in evaluating theoretical hypotheses.
Because the evidence does not unambiguously select one theory over another, it is claimed that theories are virtually if not actually unconstrained by the natural world and that theory selection is therefore a function of nonempirical
, invisible ends that material and instrumental explanations of motivation overlook" (Alexander, 1990, p.
Etzioni, supra note 2, at 173, 176, 178 (offering a similar, though nonempirical