The Maillard reaction is nonenzymatic
browning due to spontaneous interactions of reducing sugars, such as fructose and glucose, with amines or the amino groups of proteins, such as [epsilon]-NH2 groups of lysine residues and [alpha]-NH2 groups of protein.
Hyperglycemia can lead to the production of ROS such as superoxide, hydrogen peroxide, and hydroxyl radicals during a number of enzymatic and nonenzymatic
pathways such as glucose oxidative phosphorylation, the polyol pathway, advanced-glycation end-products, outflow during mitochondrial respiratory chain, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase activation.
pylori susceptibility; (2) mechanical and potential changes in the stomach due to diabetic autonomic neuropathy may lower the gastric mucosa's ability to remove bacteria; and (3) in patients with diabetes, nonenzymatic
mucin glycosylation can increase salivary mucin in the gastric mucosa and thus promote the binding of H.
Moreover, elasmobranchs also have a nonenzymatic
line of defense to compensate for oxidative imbalances associated with the dynamics of oxygen consumption and periods of starvation (Sole et al.
Structural weakening of skeletal muscle tissue during post-mortem ageing of meat: The nonenzymatic
mechanism of meat tenderization.
The kinetics of nonenzymatic
browning, " Physical chemistry of foods, 595 (1992)
Our results indicated that i) antioxidant gene expression is modulated in the course of the blastogenetic cycle and upon exposure to Cd, and ii) hemocytes synthesize both enzymatic and nonenzymatic
antioxidants, in line with the idea that they represent a major detoxification system for ascidians.
The most abundant protein in the blood is albumin, and nonenzymatic
attachment of glucose to lysine residues on albumin produces glycated albumin.
These molecules are connected with two mechanisms of wine oxidation: enzymatic and nonenzymatic
Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration is the result of nonenzymatic
oxidative lipid peroxide destruction and shows toxic effect by binding to nucleic acids, phospholipids and the amino groups of proteins.
Lipid oxidation, enzymatic browning, nonenzymatic
browning and microbial growth escalate with increased temperature and time," Sand wrote in a recent report.
These systems can stop and decrease ROS and free radicals which hurt tissues and cells , also different antioxidant substances, that contain the enzymes, nonenzymatic
antioxidants, and an array of small molecules can be calm .