In other respects, however, totalitarianism was the opposite of democracy It was institutionally and structurally "monistic" rather than pluralistic, and, far from liberal democratic competition, "there is an exclusive, autonomous, and more or less intellectually elaborate ideology with which the ruling group or leader, and the party serving the leaders, identify and which they use as a basis for policies." (36) In other words, totalitarianism turned democracy on its head, almost mocking the American commitment to what Philippe Schmitter called, in another influential typology, the "multiple, voluntary, competitive, nonhierarchically
ordered and self-determined categories" of pluralist participation.
Instead of rising upward in neat architectural stories, the rhizome stretches sideways and increases itself nonhierarchically
. The rhizome, the authors tell us, has its own syntax, one uninterested in logic that moves with a purpose from here to there.
The represented institutions of municipality, university and civil society are organized nonhierarchically
. The diverse composition of institutions characterizes the collaborative and cooperative work on a basis of parity.
On the basis of the theoretical framework of third space, ideally, university-based and school-based teacher education would occur concurrently and nonhierarchically
. The existence of this environment is addressed by the research question, How do university- and school-based contexts impact TCs' lesson planning choices?
The importance of a member of an assumed terrorist organization is weighed according to the outcome of the SNA in a kind of cost-benefit analysis: Steve Ressler from the Department of Homeland Security stresses that such an analysis focuses 'on the value of the network structure rather than the characteristics of the individual' (Ressler, 2006: 2), because these 'terrorist' organizations are interpreted as nonhierarchically
organized networks with often only loosely connected individuals.
Her sculptures and paintings break down the predictable binaries of subject/object, matter/language, body/writing, instead looping through and among them, nonhierarchically
to encourage deep collaboration, and to operate nonhierarchically
Yet in this postindustrial information age, with knowledge-intensive inventions emerging from new kinds of research institutions, creative entities are organized nonhierarchically
and along continuously changing lines.