The only nonincumbent
Democrats to win the presidency since World War II Kennedy, Carter, Clinton and Obama all benefitted from an intensity bonus.
campaigns focused on expressing negative aspects about the incumbent rather than increasing awareness about their own candidates.
Berggren, Jordahl, and Poutvaara (2010) finds that the beauty premium is larger for nonincumbent
Indeed, in 1960 Kennedy was a nonincumbent
engaged in a hard-fought contest with a formidable Republican opponent, Richard Nixon.
most heavily to nonincumbent
candidates in competitive races).
On average, an incumbent candidate received $33,156 from special interest groups, which is more than quadruple the average amount of a nonincumbent
Only Texas has a nonincumbent
residential retail-market share higher than 50 percent.
With 97% of the precincts reporting, de Blasio held a commanding lead of 74% to 24% the largest margin of victory by a nonincumbent
in any mayorA's race in city history.
This means that in more than 95% of the market, the independent is the nonincumbent
and can use disruptive technology to move outside its traditional service territories to gain market share, revenue and margin.
(23) Recall from the discussion above that it is these new, nonincumbent
first secretaries that I refer to as "second" first secretaries.