Generalized estimating equations control for nonindependence
of plan-year observations within employer (Ziegler, Kastner, and Blettner 1998).
Although treatments were delivered to students individually, multilevel modeling was used to test the research questions to account for nonindependence
in children's scores due to preschool teacher and district memberships.
To account for the statistical nonindependence
of birth outcomes in a neighborhood (i.
Meta-analysis acknowledges the likely nonindependence
among multiple studies, but it is typical practice to proceed this way because excluding data reduces statistical power (e.
387, 398 (2008) ("Elections establish the nonindependence
Due to multiple fires occurring in the same MSA each month resulting in possible nonindependence
of the error term, we cluster our standard errors at the MSA level monthly.
These approaches handle nonindependence
when using dyadic data; they take into account that couples' scores are likely more similar to one another than to other people's scores (Cook, 2012).
Standard errors are clustered at the individual level to correct for the nonindependence
of individual observations over time.
Compositional analysis avoids the problems of radiolocation serial correlation by using the animal as the sampling unit and addresses the issue of nonindependence
by using log-ratio transformation of the habitat proportions (Aebischer et al.
Multilevel modeling can include variables at different levels, by taking into consideration the nonindependence
of observations (Raudenbush & Bryk, 2002).
Therefore, it is important to account for the nonindependence
of the dyad members.
5) These arguments suggest that a firm without a fully independent audit committee may choose to hire new independent directors making the nonindependence
of audit committees a valid criterion when identifying noncompliance.