It also appears that there was no systematic use of nonmanual
markers such as head nod, eyebrow raising, body lean and so on, to mark tense.
For decades, pharmaceutical companies have placed their sales reps under two such exemptions: the outside sales exemption, which stipulates that autonomous sales reps can't receive overtime pay; and the administrative exemption, which states that salaried employees who perform nonmanual
work related to a company's central business operations, and who exercise their own discretion and independent judgment with respect to significant matters, can't receive overtime pay.
One study reported no association between social class and bulimia, while another reported that adolescents whose parents had manual jobs scored higher on the eating disorder scales than those whose parents had nonmanual
jobs or were unemployed (27, 41).
Researchers have found that "any routine task - a category that includes many white-collar, nonmanual
jobs - is on the firing line." Globalization only reinforces the trend: High-wage jobs "performed by highly educated workers are, if anything, more 'offshorable' than jobs done by low-paid, less-educated workers.
Parental socioeconomic status (SES) was assessed at the baseline in 1980 by parents' report of their educational level (low/intermediate/high), occupational status (manual/lower nonmanual/upper nonmanual
), and gross annual household income (ranging from [euro] 2523 to [euro] 16819) of the family.
Among all children aged 0-60 months, mortality was higher among those whose mother had autonomy in at least two of the four domains (1.1-1.3) than among those whose mother had autonomy in none of the domains; higher among those whose mother had a manual (1.4), nonmanual
(1.5) or agricultural (1.3) job than among those whose mother did not work; and higher among those whose mother had up to 12 years of education (1.5-2.4) than among those whose mother had at least 13 years of schooling.
markers and it assumes earlier establishment of
The all-employees series is used because it is more comparable with the worker coverage of the Chinese data, which includes both manual and nonmanual
The socioeconomic variables included education (none, school, and postschool), social class (professional/managerial, other nonmanual
, skilled manual, semi and unskilled manual), benefits (recipient during the last year or not), and household income (<$25k, $25-50k, > $50k).
Table 1 Social class schema Class Description Levels label (a) Goldthorpe class schema--9 category version I/II/Iva Professional and managerial salariat and large employers 1 IIIa Routine nonmanual
employees, higher grade 2 IVb Self-employed workers (non professional) 2 IVc Farmers 2 V Foremen and technicians 2 VI Skilled manual workers 2 IIIb Routine nonmanual
workers, lower grade 3 VIIa Semi-skilled and unskilled manual workers 3 VIIb Agricultural workers 3 NS-SEC--7 category version 1 Higher managerial and professional and large employers 1 2 Lower managerial and professional 1 3 Intermediate 2 4 Small employers and own account workers 2 5 Lower supervisory and technical 2 6 Semi-routine 3 7 Routine 3 Note:(a) As used in determining upward and downward mobility See text.
Higher risk of colic in infants of nonmanual
employee mothers with a demanding work situation in pregnancy.
The adverb "reluctantly' is conveyed by the facial expression, i.e., on a nonmanual
articulator ([right arrow] 5.