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Nonohmic conduction, due to barrier tunneling effect between the conducting nano-fillers separated by polymer layer.
Thus, the percolation threshold is seen as the transition from nonohmic to ohmic conduction [45, 46].
When charge carriers move from metal to semiconductor and back, depending on thermodynamic work functions ratio, different types of contacts can be realized: neutral, ohmic, nonohmic (Schottky barrier).
One problem they face is that of charge buildup, which leads to recombination loss and is dominant with nonohmic contacts [11].
Although pure Sn[O.sub.2] presents intrinsic nonohmic behavior and low densification, it may be used to produce a varistor system when properly doped.
Nonohmic behavior of Sn[O.sub.2]-MnO polycrystalline ceramics.
Based on it, in the present study, Sn[O.sub.2]-[Ta.sub.2][O.sub.5]-ZnO-based varistor system was doped with Zr[O.sub.2] (0-2.0 mol%), and the effect of Zr[O.sub.2] doping on the microstructure and nonohmic properties of Sn[O.sub.2]-[Ta.sub.2][O.sub.5] based varistors was investigated.
These observations indicate that the current conduction is ohmic in the low voltage region and is nonohmic in the high-voltage region.
J [alpha] [d.sup.-k], in the nonohmic region of applied voltage, where k represents the distribution of traps in the thin films.
The most commonly used HCBL material for OPVs is PEDOT:PSS, which plays an important role in organic electronics such as controlling the hole transport conditions, reducing surface roughness of the substrate, and converting nonohmic contacts into ohmic states.
As a result most metal contacts applied to p-type CdTe such as copper with work function of 4.6 eV, nickel with 5.1 eV, or titanium with 4.3 eV create nonohmic Schottky type barrier contact which limits the overall performance efficiency of the CdTe cell [36,37].
For nonohmic load such as a battery which has fixed voltage, an MPPT charger in current mode shall be used instead of the utilized boost converter.