, a well-known vaginal irritant (0.001 to 100% (v/v)) and Universal Placebo formulation were studied as positive and negative controls, respectively.
Intravaginal betadine, clotrimazole, gentian violet, nonoxynol-9
and potassium permanganate are not effective in clearing TV.4
Policymakers and planners raised three questions of note: 1) funding, 2) concern about nonoxynol-9
(N-9) spermicide, and 3) HIV prevention.
The earliest microbicide candidates were surfactants, such as nonoxynol-9
(N9), that showed antiretroviral activity against both HIV and HSV in vitro by disrupting the membrane coat of the virus 69-71].
Food and Drug Administration (FDA) mandated a new warning for the labels of over-the-counter vaginal contraceptives that contain the spermicide nonoxynol-9
. The warning states that vaginal contraceptives containing nonoxynol-9
do not protect against infection from HIV (human immunodeficiency virus, the AIDS virus) or other STDs.
The positive control group contained Sertoli cells that were treated only with Nonoxynol-9
(N-9), a known inducer of DNA fragmentation (39).
Gynol II is a spermicide containing nonoxynol-9
, a chemical that is known to damage cells and make users more vulnerable to HIV.
In this study a 58 kDa Achyranthes protein (Ap) was isolated from Achyranthes aspera using standard protocols and their effects on the rat sperm was studied in vitro in comparison with nonoxynol-9
Evaluation of a low-dose nonoxynol-9
gel for the prevention of sexually transmitted diseases: a randomized clinical trial.
Commonly used brands containing Nonoxynol-9
, for example, can cause irritation to the vagina or rectum, increasing users' risk of STIs and HIV.
Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9
which some condoms are coated with, are powerful agents that can kill viruses so it's possible to have a reaction to one.
However, all the microbicides were found to be ineffective against HIV, and two of the gels - nonoxynol-9
and cellulose sulfate - actually increased the risk of HIV infection in women.