Categories other than play were defined for the observations as nonplay
or nonpretend play.
Competition can turn play into nonplay
if rewards for winning extend beyond the game itself.
(2005) 2.40 .07 2.26 2.54 Positive interaction 5.27 1.20 2.92 7.62 Negative behaviors .24 .53 -.80 1.28 Nonplay
behaviors 1.22 .58 .08 2.36 Solitary play 1.38 .60 .20 2.56 Parallel play 2.47 .73 1.04 3.90 Associative/cooperative play 6.97 1.51 4.01 9.93 Positive linguistic interaction 3.03 .81 1.44 4.62 Child responds positively 5.66 1.27 3.17 8.15 Child responds negatively .53 .54 -.53 1.59 Child initiates interaction 7.33 1.59 4.21 10.45 SCR 95% CI Study ES SE LL UL (TauU) (TauU) August (1987) Study 1 (1) Frequency of utterances in English Proportion of English Calhoon et al.
Results from four assessments (PLS, Vocabulary Assessment, highest play level on the PIECES, and percentage of time engaged in exploratory play, pretend play, or nonplay
according to the PIECES) are discussed.
An analysis of risk factors associated with nonplay
dog bites in Kingston, Jamaica, found that a dog sleeping in a family member's bedroom was a risk factor for biting (relative risk 2.54, 95% CI 1.4-4.54) (36).
Using a stopwatch, I timed the intervals, observing and then recording the predominant play or nonplay
behavior (as indicated by the POS) and all the peer interaction behaviors (as indicated by the ISBS).
In this chapter, Smith also draws some key distinctions between play and nonplay
Robinson, along comes Mick Jagger's one-time consort to lend her name to "Benchmark," the most eccentric nonplay
this capital has seen in quite some time.
Both theorists and researchers do concur upon a common set of characteristics that distinguish play behaviors from nonplay
behaviors for children across all ages, domains, and cultures.
However, it is difficult to distinguish play from nonplay
. While most people intuitively know play when they observe it, play is not clearly definable and there are no definable criteria to determine which activities are play and which are not (Spodek & Saracho 1994:262).
Each tape was coded independently by two research assistants blind to the study for frequency and duration of the three play categories and one nonplay
category which were adapted from Belsky and Most's (1981) hypothesized sequence of development of exploration and play for children ages 7 1/2 months to 21 months.
Categorical play included five mutually exclusive variables (nonplay
, exploration, functional play, constructive play, and pretend play).