Unfortunately, large clinical data research networks that aggregate data from multiple health systems, such as those funded by the Patient-Centered Outcomes Research Institute, will encounter randomly and nonrandomly
missing race/ ethnicity data for the foreseeable future.
statistically adjust for confounding variable through techniques such as ANCOVA or propensity score analysis); or (d) nonrandomly
on the basis of a reasonable cutoff point (regression discontinuity design).
We selected seven study sites nonrandomly
that were representative of the types of upland grassland of southeastern Arizona (McClaran and Van Devender, 1995), in terms of vegetative characteristics and range of management activities (including ungrazed sites and sites employing a range of grazing regimes).
In either case, statistically, this means that insured individuals are a nonrandomly
selected sample of the population.
Since snails often distribute themselves nonrandomly
, it is reasonable to conclude that aggregation is a social behavior, although the adaptive significance does not seem to be the same in heterospecifics (Chase et al.
Bats were captured nonrandomly
by using 2 methods: opportunistic sampling of hunted bats (hunters were not solicited or incentivized to hunt bats for this study) and mist nets.
The reference population was constructed nonrandomly
to be generally representative of the job distribution among the adult U.
Importantly, strains within each of these divisions were nonrandomly
associated with geography and ancient population migrations.
35) Arguments for the evolvability of the code are strengthened by the finding that amino acids are assigned to genetic code-words nonrandomly
All of these factors might be of importance in identifying reasons for the increased rates of medical symptoms in GW veterans, and these exposures differ systematically and nonrandomly
between GW veterans and nondeployed referents.
From a Bayesian inference perspective, in the present study we focused on the comparison of nonrandomly
selected data with the prior predictive distributions of ABPS values in factor-stratified subpopulations of samples.
Thirty-two adult eastern European restaurant worker candidates were nonrandomly
assigned to the study group (n = 15), in which the candidates were educated in food handling by their children in their native language using English language training materials, or the control group (n = 17), in which they were taught the same information by a certified instructor in English.