On the author's proposal, instead of seeing action as the coupling of a rational capacity to acknowledge commitments and a nonrational
capacity to reliably respond to these commitments, we should see action as the coupling, or potential coupling, of a capacity to reason practically and a capacity to act on habits and bodily skills.
These range from the difficulty in all wars of predicting what the political result of using force might be to the possibility that nonrational
psychological and cultural mind-sets may blind leaders to what actually motivates them.
Religious traditions--with their models and narratives, their embodied practices and nonrational
approaches--have a place at the table.
The problem the West now faces is not only intolerant Wahhabi Islam, but that Islam as a whole never has accepted the essence of the Enlightenment which, as put in the essay "The Counter-Enlightenment" by historian Isaiah Berlin, "is the proclamation of the autonomy of reason and the methods of the natural sciences, based on observation as the sole reliable method of knowledge, and the consequent rejection of the authority of revelation, sacred writings and their accepted interpreters, tradition, prescription, and every form of nonrational
and transcendent source of knowledge.
The category of the nonrational
is central to what Smith terms a "historical poetics of justice" (218n1O).
Three pivotal ideas, reflected in recent Catholic literature, will be presented: a cultural understanding of racism; a reframing of the task of racial reconciliation; and the role of lament (and the importance of the nonrational
in Catholic ethical reflection) in achieving racial justice.
The text expands and clarifies concepts like the distinction between inductive and deductive arguments, deductive validity, the deductive nature of normative arguments, the role of subpremises, and others, and addresses how nonrational
factors affect thinking and why the fallacy of self-interest is a problem of relevance rather than a moral issue.
Unlike the museum -- [which] is driven by a rational model for categorization, chronology and display -- the cabinet of curiosities' collection strategy was completely un-systematic and nonrational
," he continued.
In a near-verbatim reiteration of Freud's insights into the nonrational
structure of the unconscious, Komunyakaa dispels stereotypes by foreswearing allegiance to predictable associations and stereotyped images of familiarity.
Then it becomes necessary to show that the same model is applicable to nonrational
beings; and this Suarez does mainly by arguing heroically against numerous counterarguments which seemed to explain various natural processes without referring to substantial forms.
When Israeli daycare centers struggling with the problem of parents arriving after closing time to pick up their children implemented a fine of 10 shekels to discourage lateness, the number of parents arriving late actually increased--an example of nonrational
economic behavior in action.
103: "The attempt has been made to attain the notion of a nonrational
action by this reasoning: If a is preferred to b and b to c, logically a should be preferred to c.