Barboza & Bowyer (2001) assumed that gastro-centric hypothesis could explain sexual segregation according to the difference of seasonal metabolism of energy and protein among nonreproductive
female, reproductive female and male reindeer (Rangifer tarandus).
The largest colony was 151 individuals, and many barns were used only by males, sometimes with a few nonreproductive
thysanodes (10 lactating females, one pregnant female, one nonreproductive
female, one adult male, and one young of the year).
factors related to lifestyle play an important role in the development of cancer, and they are risk factors that can be modified in the population through behavioral changes (12, 13).
1] All the women who live beyond the age of 45-50 years, experience a period of transition from reproductive to nonreproductive
stage of life as a normal physiological change.
Including the nonreproductive
fish in calculations of the SSB could lead to an overestimation of the number of spawning fish and, therefore, would lead to an overestimation of expected recruitment.
i] is the ML of size-class i, [delta] is the ML at which 50% of the female squid are sexually mature, and [gamma] is a rate parameter related to the speed of size change from nonreproductive
to reproductive status (Fontoura et al.
Copulations in Tibetan macaques are reported to occur outside of the mating season, however these are nonreproductive
, and principally involve high-ranking males (Li et al.
Honeybees are eusocial insects, meaning they have a queen that lays eggs while all the other females in the hive are nonreproductive
Gonadal hormones and sex differences in nonreproductive
In other species such as cattle, there are precedents where selective breeding for nonreproductive
traits have lead to reduced fertility (Lucy, 2001).
Finally, family planning providers without the capacity to offer more comprehensive preventive care, such as screenings for lipid disorders and nonreproductive
cancers, should be able to provide referrals for these services.