Implicit Relational Assessment Procedure (IRAP) The IRAP presented two label stimuli (smoker or nonsmoker
) with six socially positive adjectives (cool, independent, popular, fun, attractive, and respected) and six socially negative adjectives (lame, boring, needy, loner, weak, and loser) as target stimuli, and two response options (true and false).
The investigators used cohort data to classify each individual as a smoker or a nonsmoker
. In certain groups they could classify people as a current smoker, a former smoker, or a never smoker.
[15,16] Also in the present study, in the nonsmoker
group, females were more than males.
In Wisconsin, for example, a single male nonsmoker
, age 30, could pay $468 per year for a plan with a $3,500 annual deductible, a $4,500 out-of-pocket maximum, and a 20 percent coinsurance rate.
These PET (position emission tomography) scans show the concentration of an important enzyme, MAO B, in the internal organs of a smoker and a nonsmoker
. MAO B plays a role in nerve cell communication and in the regulation of blood pressure.
One of those groups, SmokeFree Ohio, was also claiming that merely 20 minutes of exposure causes a nonsmoker
's platelets to become "as sticky as a smoker's," increasing the chance of a heart attack.
The subjects rated each of three hypothetical situations - smoker, nonsmoker
, and former smoker - on six 5-point Likert-format items (1=extremely low, 2=somewhat low, 3=neutral, 4=somewhat high, 5=extremely high).
The report also found that living with a smoker increases a nonsmoker
's risk of lung cancer and heart disease by up to 30%.
Regarding smoking status, one inclusionary criterion for our study was to be a nonsmoker
and live with nonsmokers
; thus smoking is not an important indoor source of particles in these residences.
* You are much more likely to get lung cancer than a nonsmoker
. Men are 22 times more likely to develop lung cancer, while women who smoke are 12 times more likely.
Tukey tests indicated that the only difference which approached statistical significance was that between smokers' judgements of the average smoker and smokers' judgements of the average nonsmoker
, (5) For non-smokers, there was a significant difference among their ratings of themselves, the average smoker, and the average non-smoker (F(2,236) = 20.21, p < .01).
The major emphasis at this time is not on the smoker's right to smoke in the workplace, hut on the nonsmoker
's right and the employer's right to eliminate smoking in the workplace.