"Enamel resembles a layer of natural inorganic crystalline mineral and is primarily composed of nonstoichiometric
fluoridated carbonate apatite crystals that are tightly packed with well-defined orientations to ensure striking hardness," said Dr.
Usually, the necessary oxygen vacancy concentration in the metal oxide films for the memristor devices is achieved either by deposition of the nonstoichiometric
oxide films or by the postdeposition vacuum annealing.
Nevertheless, as the activity of these species is poorer under heating process within humidity, the Cu oxide films were nonstoichiometric
The EDS analysis indicates sulfur-rich sulfides (nonstoichiometric
FeS) in the crystalline region depicted in Figure 6(f).
Ti[O.sub.2] usually presents oxygen vacancies; these defects can be controlled experimentally based on nonstoichiometric
conditions of synthesis (Ti excess or oxygen deficiency) or by heating the sample in a vacuum at 900 K [37-39].
oxides as low-cost and highly-efficient oxygen reduction/evolution catalysts for low-temperature electrochemical devices," Chemical Reviews, vol.
Kiridena, "Ti[O.sub.2] and W[O.sub.3] semiconductor particles in contact: photochemical reduction of W[O.sub.3] to the nonstoichiometric
blue form," Semiconductor Science and Technology, vol.
formulations with excess of epoxy monomer, the epoxy rings could, in principle, react with these hydroxyl groups, but this secondary reaction will not contribute to the reduction of the number of hydrophilic OH groups [24, 25].
A number of reports have been published for the synthesis of g-[C.sub.3][N.sub.4] and even other graphitic forms with nonstoichiometric
compositions on the basis of various techniques such as CVD [8-10], solid reaction [11-17], solvothermal method [18-22], and thermal decomposition of compounds [23-26].
This relatively high value can be associated with the severe plastic deformations, which introduces different types of defects such as dislocations, grain boundaries, gaps, and stacking faults and it can be also explained by the formation of a nonstoichiometric
composition of the austenite phase.
Sakka, "Calibration-free analysis of immersed brass alloys using long-ns-duration pulse laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy with and without correction for nonstoichiometric
ablation," Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, vol.
Consequently, the nitride phases are nonstoichiometric
compounds, and nanograins contain a large number of additional sites at the locations of nitrogen atoms.