Two students from each course, a talker and a nontalker, were nonrandomly chosen for structured interviews.
Traditional Male Nontalker Computer Technology Major
[laughs] Nontraditional Female Nontalker Accounting Major
Following Karp and Yoels (1976), those accepting the consolidation of responsibility by participating twice or more in a single class session were labeled "talkers." Those participating less than twice in a single class session were labeled "nontalkers." Observers also kept qualitative notes regarding interaction in the classroom.
With each of the five subjects taking mms to be the talker, the list was administered to the four nontalkers
under various conditions.
In addition, the format eventually inspired the nontalkers
in her class to share their thoughts and ideas.
Sometimes flare-ups erupt between "talkers" and "nontalkers
"--those who continue to dwell or reflect on the crisis and those who want to move on.
"The difference between [the two groups] in STD rates, pregnancy rates, number of partners and number of casual encounters is stunning." Nontalkers
were five times more likely than talkers to have had relationships with more than one partner at a time, four times more likely than talkers to have had anal sex, four times as likely to have had more lifetime partners and twice as likely to have had sex with someone who had an STD.
Instead, when the consolidation of responsibility is operating, there are only "talkers"--who account for the vast majority of all interactions--and "nontalkers"--those students who speak up only occasionally, if at all (Howard et al., 1996; Howard & Henney, 1998; Karp & Yoels, 1976).
In this study we first identified "talkers" and "nontalkers" via observation.
In addition to determining the level of participation of various demographic groups in the classroom, the purpose of the observation was to ascertain if the consolidation of responsibility was in effect in these courses and to identify the students who accepted this responsibility, thus becoming "talkers." Following the model of Karp and Yoels (1976), students who participated twice or more in a class session were considered "talkers." Students who participated once or not at all in a class session were labeled "nontalkers."
Both "talkers" and "nontalkers
" said that they appreciated the verbal contributions of their classmates, but it was evident that there were clear norms regarding verbal participation which they expected their classmates to follow.