Finally, ZIKV can be imported and spread by nonvector
transmission routes (eg, sexual transmission (13)), so a level of caution is recommended when trying to relate vector hazard with disease risk.
jamesii (totally 10; [p.sub.i] = 0.019) was the only one species of nonvector
found throughout the study.
Economic importance: the species is of limited economic importance in North America, is a nonvector
, and ordinarily does very little damage to hosts .
Given recent concerns regarding the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus disease, there is an urgent need to document the natural history of infection and assess transmission risk through nonvector
Chemically mediated multitrophic interactions in a plant-insect vector-phytoplasma system compared with a partially nonvector
In addition other nonvector
mosquitoes, namely, two An, demeilloni and one An.
Zoonotic diseases may be vector borne (transmitted to humans from a vertebrate reservoir by an arthropod vector such as Lyme disease) or nonvector
borne [transmitted to humans by direct or indirect contact with the vertebrate host without the participation of an arthropod vector such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)].
pathways of contracting WNV and current methods of prevention.
High quality BAC end sequences (defined as those having >100 nonvector
bases with a PHRED quality value >20) were used as queries in searches of SWISS-PROT (Bairoch and Apweiler, 2000), Genbank NR, MIPS Arabidopsis, maize genomic sequence dbGSS, and maize cDNA database dbEST.
The Zika virus can be imported and spread by nonvector
transmission routes (eg, sexual transmission (80)), so it is recommended that a level of caution be taken when interpreting the data provided by this system.
modes of Zika virus transmission include congenital (34), perinatal (35), and sexual (11,36).
Over-fertilization above recommended rates of nitrogen for optimal production results in an increase in the numbers of vector and nonvector
Frankliniella thrips and an increased incidence in tomato spotted wilt (Stavisky et al.