The Zika virus can be imported and spread by nonvector
transmission routes (eg, sexual transmission (80)), so it is recommended that a level of caution be taken when interpreting the data provided by this system.
Given recent concerns regarding the ongoing epidemic of Zika virus disease, there is an urgent need to document the natural history of infection and assess transmission risk through nonvector
Chemically mediated multitrophic interactions in a plant-insect vector-phytoplasma system compared with a partially nonvector
Zoonotic diseases may be vector borne (transmitted to humans from a vertebrate reservoir by an arthropod vector such as Lyme disease) or nonvector
borne [transmitted to humans by direct or indirect contact with the vertebrate host without the participation of an arthropod vector such as hantavirus pulmonary syndrome (HPS)].
pathways of contracting WNV and current methods of prevention.
High quality BAC end sequences (defined as those having >100 nonvector
bases with a PHRED quality value >20) were used as queries in searches of SWISS-PROT (Bairoch and Apweiler, 2000), Genbank NR, MIPS Arabidopsis, maize genomic sequence dbGSS, and maize cDNA database dbEST.
modes of Zika virus transmission include congenital (34), perinatal (35), and sexual (11,36).
Over-fertilization above recommended rates of nitrogen for optimal production results in an increase in the numbers of vector and nonvector
Frankliniella thrips and an increased incidence in tomato spotted wilt (Stavisky et al.
transmission was hypothesized to have contributed to the intensity of these outbreaks.
transmission occasionally occurs through blood transfusions, contaminated needles of drug users, organ transplants, or laboratory infection (1).
rivulorum) are either nonvectors
or of very limited importance, the fact that they are easily confused with An.
1%) could not be matched (<90% identity) to any of the 224 ITS2 or 164 CO1 published sequences of anopheline vectors or nonvectors