dysfunction and the psychopharmacology of posttraumatic stress disorder," Depression and Anxiety, vol.
Targeting mechanisms of action Noradrenergic
mechanisms have been strongly implicated in the pathophysiology of PTSD.
The Locus Coeruleus (LC), meaning the blue spot in Latin, is a small collection of noradrenergic
neurons (about 16,000 per hemisphere in the human), located just behind the periaqueductal gray (PAG) in the dorsorostral pons .
However, other structures are also related to the expression of the emotional responses; in particular, the noradrenergic
system of the locus coeruleus (LC), which is a system closely correlated with attentional states, sleep/wakefulness cycles, learning and memory, reproduction, emotional behaviors and stressful situations, as well as modulation of fear and anxiety (3).
Regarding a strategy for switching medications, little evidence exists for a differential benefit of one class over another, he said, with the following exceptions: selective noradrenergic
reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) and tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs) are superior to SSRIs for MDD with comorbid pain such as fibromyalgia and diabetic neuropathy.
The cause of dysthymic disorder is not clear, but it appears to involve abnormalities of serotonergic and noradrenergic
Similarly, other neurochemical analysis of noni-treated rats (1mL/day, p.o.) for 15 days revealed significant changes in noradrenergic
, dopaminergic, or serotonergic systems in amygdala, hippocampus, and substantia nigra .
Animal models suggest that this Condition is linked with an imbalance in the dopaminergic and noradrenergic
systems characterized by decreased dopamine activity and increased norepinephrine activity Clinical manifestations include poor self-regulation, an inability to prevent immediate responding, and difficulty with attention and goal-directed behavior and thought.
A major target of the noradrenergic
system is the hippocampus, a region that is critical for learning and memory.
Instead of advocating fever therapy (fever induced by artificial means), the scientists claimed that the future of autism treatment lies in drugs that selectively target certain types of noradrenergic
brain receptors or, more likely, in epigenetic therapies targeting genes of the LC-NA system.
Taking into account that neural sympathetic activity is positively correlated with the functioning of the noradrenergic
neurons located at the (A5) nucleus, which antagonize (C1) adrenaline medullary activity, we designed the therapy to normalize that imbalance.
Evidence also indicated that the descending noradrenergic
, serotonergic and methionine-enphalinergic systems play important roles in the action of analgesics such as morphine (Ohsawa et al., 2000) and that the descending noradrenergic
system is more important in the antinociceptive action of morphine on mechanical noxious stimulation than is the descending serotonergic system (Kuraishi et al., 1985).