multocida isolates to enrofloxacin was highest (90.91 percent) followed by 72.73% to each of gentamicin chloramphenicol ciprofloxacin and norfloxacin
. Sensitivity of isolates to ampicillin and amoxicillin was 45.45% while 36.36% isolate were sensitive to sulfadiazine.
and ciprofloxacin resistance selection also decreased the sensitivity of 3626 and VPI to ethidium bromide, but gatifloxacin-resistant [3626.sup.GR] became more sensitive to it.
Of the X variant (-:7,8, E1037), indole-negative variety strains, 82.2% were resistant to norfloxacin
, 39.7% to ciprofloxacin, 21.9% to levofloxacin, and 13.7% to cefotaxime.
LF Enterobacteriaceae with two different antibiograms (R to cefoperazone, gentamicin, co-trimoxazole, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin
, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime, amikacin; and R to cefoperazone, gentamicin, cotrimoxazole, nalidixic acid, norfloxacin
, ciprofloxacin, cefotaxime but susceptible to amikacin) constituted 28 and 22 per cent of the isolates.
The antibiotics selected for the study were penicillin, ampicillin, oxacillin, erythromycin, polymyxin B sulphate, tetracycline, chloramphenicol, vancomycin and rifampin which were obtained from Himedia (India) and norfloxacin
and eugenol were purchased from Sigma (Bangalore, India).
The fluoroquinolone drugs that will carry the new labeling include ciprofloxacin, ciprofloxacin extended release, gemifloxacin, levofloxacin, moxifloxacin, norfloxacin
, and ofloxacin.
probably has less effect; neither ofloxacin nor lomefloxacin appears to affect caffeine metabolism.
Besides, 145(90.09%) strains of Enterococcus faecalis exhibited resistance to gentamicin, 140(86.95%) to norfloxacin
. Moreover, 138(85.71%) strains exhibited multi-drug resistance.
(2) The antibiotics which were tested for susceptibility are Ampicillin/Sulbactam, Piperacillin/Tazobactam, Ofloxacin, Norfloxacin
, Amikacin, Netilmicin, Nitrofurantoin (urinary isolates only) and high level Gentamicin disc (120 [micro]g).
A total of 10 antibiotic discs--Ampicillin (A-10 mcg,) Amoxycillin (Am-30mcg), Cefalexin (Cn 30mcg), Norfloxacin
(Nx-10mcg), Chloramphenicol (C-30 mcg), Ceftriaxone (Ctr--30mcg), Azithromycin (Azm- 30 mcg), Ciprofloxacin (Cip- 1 mcg), Ampicilin-Cloxacilin (Ax- 10 mcg) and Erythromycin (E-30 mcg) supplied by Hi-Media laboratories were used in the present study.
Multiple drug resistance: Biochemically characterized bacterial isolates were tested for sensitivity against different antibiotics including Penicillin (10IU), Amoxicillin (30u g), Gentamycin (10u g), Oxytetracyclin (30u g), Ceftizole (30u g), Streptomycin (30u g), Ciprofloxacin (10u g), Enrofloxacin (5u g), Norfloxacin
(5u g) and Trimethoprim plus Sulfamethoxazole (1.25, 23.75 u g) following the procedure described by Bauer et al., (1966).
All tested strains were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, and most (97%) were resistant to quinolone (nalidixic acid) and fluoroquinolones (norfloxacin
, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin) (Figure).